Mainstreaming Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation Objectives into Socio-Economic Development Planning and Management of Biosphere Reserve in Viet Nam


The project aims to address multiple development challenges threatening the sustainability of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Vietnam’s Biosphere Reserves by strengthening coordinated planning in terms of national and provincial policymaking on socio-economic development, promoting sustainable natural resources management, facilitating biodiversity conservation and restoration, and fostering transformative livelihood models.

Undertaken in the Cu Lao Cham-Hoi An, Western Nghe An, and Dong Nai Biosphere Reserves, the project aids the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in its efforts to increase ecological resilience and harmonize synergies in governance and participation, especially in terms of gender mainstreaming.


Unsustainable sector-led development practices which led to the over-exploitation of natural resources, pollution, deforestation, and climate change, continue to exacerbate critical habitats and ecosystems, along with their attendant biodiversity. The project aims to improve its existing legal and institutional framework with solutions tackling the socio-economic development threats, which face their own sets of barriers.

These barriers consist of:

  1. The lack of an overriding legal and institutional framework for promoting integrated approaches to sustainable development, ecosystem enhancement and biodiversity conservation in Biosphere Reserves

  2. Ineffectiveness of institutional structures and stakeholder capacities at targeted Biosphere Reserve sites

  3. Limited awareness among the sector agencies, public and key industrial sectors on how to integrate landscape and seascape planning; and lack of awareness amongst communities, public and tourists of risks posed by biodiversity and ecosystem losses

Major Achievements

These are the targeted achievements:

  • 4,000 hectares of degraded forests restored

  • 60,000 hectares of set-aside areas (non-exhaustive use) sustainably managed

  • 2,500 households benefiting from improved livelihood models with a 20% increase in average income: 9,350 people receiving direct benefits, with 40% of them being women

  • At least 1.22 million hectares of BRs managed through participatory approaches

  • BR nomination, planning and management specified in the revised Law on Environmental Protection (LEP), its Decree and other relevant guidelines

  • Average increase by at least 30 points in the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) for 6 national parks and protected areas in 3 BRs

  • At least 50% of sampled hotel and tourism facilities within selected BRs adopt biodiversity-friendly certification standards

  • At least 1,945,829 ha of landscapes (in BR buffer and transition zone) under sustainable management practices


Project Outcome

The project intends to achieve the following outcomes to address the barriers inhibiting sustainable biodiversity and ecosystem services in Biosphere Reserves in Vietnam

  • Outcome 1: Regulatory and institutional framework to avoid, reduce, mitigate, and offset adverse impacts on biodiversity and reduced pressures on ecosystems in Biosphere Reserves in place
  • Outcome 2: Sustainable resource use, protected areas management, and biodiversity-friendly development measures mainstreamed into the management of three targeted Biosphere Reserves

  • Outcome 3: Knowledge management and monitoring and evaluation support contributes to equitable gender benefits and increased awareness of biodiversity conservation

Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) component  

Gender Mainstreaming is part of the result framework that determines the level of representation and participation present in the processes leading to improved legal frameworks, effective cross-sectoral actions, as well as heightened capacities and awareness.

Gender equality and representation are addressed through strengthened women’s inclusion in BR-related policymaking through consultation workshops/meetings, consulting services and training.

Marginalized groups in the three pilot Biosphere Reserves are also a part of project’s design where employment and income stability, capacity building and training, women’s engagement, and visibility of ethnic groups’ participation and contribution would be amplified for the local communities, more specifically women and indigenous people.