Enhancing Montenegro’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)
Climate Promise Initiative
The Climate Promise is UNDP’s response to climate change. Tackling the climate crisis requires all countries to make bold pledges under the Paris Agreement, or NDCs, to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming and strengthen adaptation to its impacts. The Climate Promise is UNDP’s commitment to ensure that any country wishing to increase the ambition of their national climate pledge is able to do so. These pledges, or Nationally Determined Contributions, are crucial stepping-stones towards net-zero emissions and meeting the Paris goals. The initiative supported over 120 countries, including Montenegro, in revising their NDCs and trying to commit to even more ambitious targets. Through the NDC revision process Montenegro committed to reduce its GHG emissions for 35%, by 2030, in comparison to 1990, as a base year.
Climate change is happening with unprecedented speed and intensity in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region, threatening continued economic growth and development progress. While efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions and boost adaptation are intensifying, climate action across the region is trailing behind the escalation of climate risks. As part of the Paris Agreement, countries were requested to put forward the next generation of their more ambitious climate pledges - Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) if the world is to get on track for a 1.5 Celsius degree future.
UNDP’s Climate Promise Initiative, announced at the 2019 UN Climate Summit, committed us to support 100 countries globally in enhancing their NDCs with demonstrated increase in ambition. In addition to helping implement the Paris Agreement, the transition to a low-carbon economy can help tackle region’s specific challenges, spurring more stable and diverse economic growth, creating new jobs, helping to slow rural depopulation, labor emigration and the brain drain across the region. In order to achieve these goals, countries should increase their ambition, accelerate climate action, and mobilize society as a whole around their climate goals.
UNDP was uniquely positioned both globally and in the EECA region to support countries in pursuing their climate goals building upon its climate portfolio, Global Policy Network integrating multi-sectorial expertise, and an established track record of supporting governments on NDC design and implementation.
UNDP supported Montenegro’s bold climate pledge through NDC revision and initiating establishment of a transparency framework for monitoring and reporting progress, also assisting the country to manage and deliver policies and programs to reach its national and international climate goals and commitments through a synergetic approach to adaptation & mitigation.
Montenegro’s enhanced NDC, with the target of 35% GHG emission decrease by 2030, is going into the direction of EU Green Deal’s objective for the continent to become climate neutral by 2050. The enhanced NDC was adopted by the Government of Montenegro in June 2021 and presented at the COP26 by high level county’s delegation. Subsequently, UNDP further supported development of NDC Implementation Roadmap, which will help Ministry of Ecology, Spatial Planning and Urbanism to track progress in NDC implementation.
In the process of revising NDC UNDP engaged team of international and national experts in different fields and organized two rounds of consultations with national partners and stakeholders. The momentum in which NDC was revised was quite challenging due to two main reasons: 1) significant political change after 30 years of governance by one political coalition, which resulted not only in new government, but also in changes in all relevant national institutions, 2) COVID induced economic crisis which revealed how fragile are small economies which rely mainly on hospitality industry, i.e. tourism.
Nonetheless, the NDC was revised and even enhanced in comparison to the INDC, and envisaged 35% decrease by 2030, in comparison to the 1990, as a base year. It includes altogether 18 measures, most of which are in energy sector.
All proposed measures have already been included into the existing national strategies, action plans and relevant legislation, and their implementation is expected. NDC was presented at various meetings with government officials, as well as with international community in Montenegro. Most of the meetings took place in the period September - November 2021. It was very much used for preparation and participation of the Montenegrin delegation at COP26 by the end of October 2021, where they presented Montenegro’s enhanced commitment to reduce its GHG emissions.
- The enhanced NDC was adopted by the Government of Montenegro on June 3rd 2021, and subsequently submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat. NDC envisages GHG emission decrease of 35% by 2030, in comparison to the base 1990. It proposes 18 measures, most of which are related to energy sector (14, including transport), followed by industry (2) and waste (2).
- UNDP Montenegro, in partnership with the Ministry of Economic Development, organised high level Green Days On-line Talks 2021 with the topic of Building the Economy of Tomorrow: Climate Ambitions and Green Recovery. The on-line talks gathered high level government representatives: Minister of Capital Investments (covering energy and transport), state secretaries from the Ministry of Finance, Ecology, Economic Development, as well as representatives of IFIs, like EIB, EBRD, European Delegation in Montenegro, UNDP, British Ambassador in Montenegro, State Secretary of the Ministry of Economy and Director of the Chamber of Economy. The event was opportunity to discuss the way forward in implementing NDC, especially from the aspect of future investments in green economy, i.e. reaching the consensus on green financing pathways for the implementation of NDC ambition by 2030.
- Series of activities were conducted with the Youth and climate change. Research on representative sample of the Youth was conducted scanning the situation in relation to their awareness about the climate change globally and in Montenegro, as well as their willingness to take part in any future related activities. In addition, series of focus groups were organised with various groups of youth (high school students, university students, young professionals, students studying abroad, young people hard to reach etc.). Report on both research and focus groups were shared with the Ministry of Ecology, Spatial Planning and Urbanism in preparation for COP26.
- The results of the two research were presented at the new edition of the Green Days Online Talks organized on 1st February 2022, on the topic "The Youth and Climate Change in Montenegro: the Race We can Still Win". The event was an opportunity for the Youth to pose questions to the decision makers: Advisor to the Vice Prime Minister, Advisor to the Prime Minister, President of the Chamber of Economy, as well as State Secretaries of the Ministry of Ecology and Ministry of Economic Development. The vent was divided into two panel sessions and was followed by 333 participants on two on-line platforms.
- Analysis on intersection of gender and climate change in Montenegro was conducted, scanning the existing situation in five areas of possible intersection: legal framework, institutional coordination, data gaps, capacity building needs, and financial instruments. For each of the following areas the recommendations were provided in order to try to mainstream gender into the climate change related policies and strategies, as well as to scan existing data and capacity building needs and gaps. The major findings were presented at the workshop organised on 20th October 2021.
- In close cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Development, Diagnostic Analysis for Green Recovery in Montenegro was developed. The analysis was based on the research conducted with the businesses in three selected sectors: industry, tourism and transport, and served as a basis for providing clear recommendations for greening Montenegrin economy recovery programmes.