Targeted Scenario Analysis

Targeted Scenario Analysis, a Practical Policy Reform Tool to Advancing an Economic Green Recovery and Sustainable Sectoral Development Policy and Investment

UNDP developed Targeted Scenario Analysis (TSA) to respond to the growing demand from decision makers and stakeholders for effective policy-relevant economic analysis tools to advance national Sustainable Development Goals.

Advancing sustainable sector policy and investment in high-profile productive sectors is at the core of achieving the renewed COP-26 commitments to greening the post-COVID19 economic reconstruction, tackling climate change, and restoring nature. However, policy reform is extremely challenging for politicians who maneuver within a short-term political planning horizon, the four to five years between elections, combined with significant lobbying pressure to maintain the status quo. Meanwhile, natural capital's gradual change provides ample time to follow a "business as usual (BAU)" path of unsustainable nature degrading policies over decades. In addition, the lack of economic data to demonstrate the economic losses associated with the BAU path from the monetary and natural capital perspectives prevents accountability by governments to demonstrate sustainable use and investment in natural capital.

Understanding the reasons underlying policy's objectives and shaping economic analysis to address them is critical to improving decision-making and advancing policy reform. Thus, UNDP's Targeted Scenario Analysis (TSA) offers a practical approach to connecting policy objectives with fit-for-purpose economic analysis. UNDP developed TSA over several years based on an extensive project portfolio review and research supported by leading environmental economists. TSA enables the conversion of economic data into sustainable sector development policy.

TSA captures and presents the value of ecosystem services to target decision-making, not in a generic, abstract manner. TSA makes a direct comparison between two policy scenarios. First, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario in which the status quo conditions, i.e., unsustainable sector management and limited investment, are projected into the future, and second, a so-called sustainable ecosystem management (SEM) scenario. SEM introduces ecosystem and natural capital management improvements into sector development policy and investment. A vital element of a TSA is that it is conducted for a particular productive sector and tailored to the specific objectives of the public or private decision-maker of the targeted sector. Policy scenarios are compared based on a wide range of carefully selected indicators in close consultation with the decision-maker (the TSA client). TSA's focus on a specific decision maker increases the likelihood that the data generated through the research is used to transition into a more effective and efficient allocation of public and private investment; therefore, it improves the sustainable management of natural capital.

At the end of a TSA, the evidence generated through research provides balanced insights into the advantages and disadvantages of keeping on track with BAU, compared to a change of direction in which the targeted sector manages ecosystems sustainably and effectively. Another critical element that sets a TSA apart from traditional economic valuation or cost-benefit analysis is that TSA shifts away from generating a policy-isolated single static value toward a long-term analysis. Thus, it shows year-to-year changes between the BAU and SEM scenarios by applying key monetary and non-monetary indicators.

As such, the main product of the TSA is a package of policy recommendations supported by the economic evidence applied to each indicator of the benefits of shifting from BAU to SEM. For each policy recommendation, a subset of indicators and graphs illustrates the development of these measurable indicators over time for both policy scenarios. Each TSA graph includes a narrative that clearly states the primary stakeholder for the analysis, an in-depth description of the methods, assumptions, and data sources used to generate the results, and confidence levels and uncertainty associated. Apart from explaining the results depicted in the graphs, there is a clear indication of what those results mean in policy decisions.

TSA's approach provides information on the results of specific decisions and management practices as a continuous, long-term analysis, showing relative change over time of key monetary and non-monetary indicators rather than a single static value. This approach is instrumental for decision making, as decisions are rarely made based on single numbers in isolation, but rather by comparing at least two policy options over time. As the name suggests, Targeted Scenario Analysis has three participatory pillars:

Targeted: TSA helps decision makers and stakeholders focus on critical decisions, which involves changing how the sector manages the ecosystem services, leading to improvements in sustainable development outcomes and profitable sustainable business. TSA targets management and investment policy, both public and private.

Scenario: It does this by developing and contrasting existing and future scenarios – Business as Usual vs. Sustainable Ecosystem Management – that link changes to biophysical and socio-economic indicators as the scenarios evolve.

Analysis: It presents an in-depth analysis of selected sustainable development indicators into the future. Decision makers select the priority and relevance of these indicators, e.g., changes in soil fertility or water availability, changes in natural capital-based productivity gains and losses, investment costs, avoided costs, net revenues, jobs, and equity and gender indicators.

Watch TSA’s Lead Author, Francisco Alpízar, Professor of Behavioral Economics at The University of Wageningen, talk about the practicality and advantages of TSA:



TSA's value-added

Country-level client (government/private sector):

  • Improve sector policy design and fiscal reform.
  • Increase quantity and quality of public and private investment in SDGs, CC mitigation, and reduction of CO2 emissions from deforestation and land degradation.
  • Increase sustainable sector productivity and long-term profitability.
  • Increase GDP at the sector and national levels.
  • Increase direct net benefits for sector producers and value-chain stakeholders.
  • Increase other financial, economic, social, and environmental benefits.


Institutional:  Successful TSAs increment UNDP and its implementing partners' credibility vis-a-vis government partners, private sector, and producers.

Technical capacity: TSA combines the capacity of UNDP, high-profile companies specializing in TSA valuation, and academia.

Funding donor: Improves the interventions' cost-effectiveness, their support to achieving SDGs, and new commitments to tackle climate change.

Scalability: High potential for transferring TSA data (results), policy recommendations, and action plans between existing and future TSA studies and implications of achieving policy impact.

Since the publication of the TSA Guideline in 2013, TSA reports have been generated in over twenty countries, covering renewable, e.g., agriculture (coffee, cocoa, palm oil), livestock, and fisheries, and non-renewable resources, e.g., small-scale mining. The TSA's Implementation Map provides an overview of past, present, and fore coming TSA at the global level. 

The TSA approach is becoming a key component of UNDP implemented projects worldwide. It has been adopted explicitly by UNDP's Food and Agricultural Commodity Systems (FACS) Practice and Ecosystem and Biodiversity Practice as an essential tool to support policy reform around agricultural production and conservation. 


TSA's Implementation 

Targeted Scenario Analysis Implementation Map


To learn more about TSA country work, click on each country of the list below:

    Report titleAssessment of the contribution of freshwater ecosystem services to the hydropower sector in the Kura-Aras River Basin in Azerbaijan
    Year of Completition2015
    ClientMinistry of Energy and Natural Resources, Ministry of Nature Protection and Ministry of Agriculture
    AuthorsFlores, Marlon and Abbasov, Rovshan
    Funding agencyWWF Caucasus Policy Programme
    AbstractDeforestation and unsuitable agricultural practices in the Kura-Aras River Basin in Azerbaijan cause increased erosion and change in water flows, making them an essential threat to the HPP/ dams' development. The study focuses on demonstrating the value of the contribution of biodiversity and ecosystem services to hydropower /dam development by assessing the HPP/dam sector and reviewing different sectors: nature-based tourism, drinkable water supply, irrigated agriculture, and natural hazards.
    Policy Targets-Hydropower plants’ regulatory and management framework 
    -Sector investment policy
    -Environmental impact assessment guideline
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    Article: Assessment of the Contribution of Freshwater Ecosystem Services to the Hydropower Sector in the Kura–Araz Basin

      Report titleTSA in the Subsistence and Small-Scale Mining Sectors in Colombia
      Year of Completition2022
      ClientMinistry of Mines and Energy of Colombia, PlanetGOLD Project
      AuthorsConservation Strategy Fund (CSF)
      Funding agencyGEF UNDP
      AbstractSubsistence and small-scale gold mining is one of the principal sources of freeing mercury into the environment. This study and the project PlanetGOLD focus on the development of economic models that actualize the mining practices which allow elimination of the liberation of mercury. The analysis considers the following types of mining: subsistence, linked to the use of discarded material from rock and reef mining, small-scale, and associated with alluvial exploitation with a backhoe.
      Policy Targets- Action Plan to Strengthen the Responsible Production and Marketing of Pineapple in Costa Rica (Pineapple Action Plan)
      - Public and corporate mining investment policy 
      Download ReportComing soon


      Report titleSustainable Livestock in the Yarí savannahs, municipalities of Macarena and San Vicente del Caguán, Colombia 
      Year of Completition2021
      ClientThe Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development (MADR) and local governments
      AuthorsConservation Strategy Fund (CSF)
      Funding agencyGEF UNDP - PAGE (Partnership for Action on Green Economy)
      AbstractDeforestation in the Amazon region presents complex challenges for Colombia. As forest resources are lost, so are the landscape's connectivity, water quality, biodiversity, soil fertility, and greenhouse gas sequestration. This TSA is looking for alternative ways to invest in improving landscape management in the livestock in the San Vicente del Caguán and Macarena municipalities, which leads to profits for the different productive actors in this sector's value chain.
      Policy Targets- Conservation agreements policy (under Executive Decree 1076 de 2015)
      - National PES Program’s guidelines (CONPES 3886 of 2017). 
      - Legal Framework of Autonomous Development Corporations
      - Revolving fund to support premium prices (Resolution 017 of 2012, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development (MADR) 
      - Agricultural-Livestock Promotion Fund
      - Sustainable Agricultural-Livestock and Green Business policy (credit lines)
      - Establishing a Nacional Livestock Fund under Law 89 of 1993
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      Policy Brief

        Report titleSustainable water resources management in high migration corridors
        Year of CompletitionPlanning stage
        Funding AgencyUNDP, TBD
        AbstractThe Central American Dry Corridor is being affected by the low availability of water resources due to climate change and poor management of water resources. In turn, these factors impact agricultural production and migration. This study aims to assess the economic impact of different approaches to freshwater ecosystem management in the agriculture sector and its links to migration patterns. The study focuses on El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.


          Report titleTSA for the Pineapple Sector of Costa Rica
          Year of Completition2016
          ClientThe Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Costa Rica
          AuthorsFrancisco Alpízar, Francisco and Salas, Ariana
          Funding agencyGEF UNDP
          AbstractThe pineapple sector is economically vital for Costa Rica, particularly in the Alajuela, Puntarenas, and Limón regions. Pineapple production is characterized by low environmental and social performance, and to such an extent that it risks the sector's survival. The study analyzes how to improve pineapple production and trade's social and environmental performance to increase its competitiveness and frame this activity within the sustainable development model.
          Targeted Policies- The National Pineapple Action Plan
          - Corporate investment policy


            Report titleTowards a sustainable agriculture sector in Cuba
            Year of CompletitionOngoing
            ClientMinistries of Science Technology and Environment (CITMA) and Agriculture
            AuthorsEnriquez, Celene, et al. 
            Funding agencyGEF UNDP
            AbstractThe TSA evaluates the contribution of ecosystem services (ES) from protected areas, part of the national system of protected areas (SNAP), to vital economic sectors and the national economy. The study will propose sectoral policy reform to increase public and private investment and promote sustainable sectorial economic growth. The study will assess how investing in ecosystems management in sectors that receive ES from PA can reduce threats to conservation and ecosystems, avoid costs and reduce pressures on PAs. Thus, reducing direct protection and conservation costs. The TSA will provide evidence-based data on the value of the financial and economic risks associated with neglecting investment in natural capital.
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            Coming soon:

            - Sector budgeting and investment
            - PA budget planning



              Report titleSustainable coffee and cocoa production 
              Year of CompletitionOngoing
              ClientMinistry of Agriculture and Ministry of Environment
              AuthorsThe Wolfs Company, part of Grand Thornton
              Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
              AbstractThe study focuses on the impact of coffee and cocoa production on ecosystems to incorporate biodiversity conservation into public policies to face current and future threats to productive mountain landscapes. It will help to ensure the private sector and government commitments to increase the budget and establish financial mechanisms to increase the investment into deforestation-free coffee and cacao and sustainable ecosystem management.
              Targeted Policies- The operational framework for sustainable management of productive mountain landscapes
              - Production systems and conservation of threatened mountain ecosystems and corridors policy
              - Sustainable livelihoods incorporating friendly agricultural practices with ecosystem services, including biodiversity


                Report titlePhasing out mercury in artisanal and small-scale mining
                Year of Completition2021
                ClientThe Ministry of Energy and Non-renewable Natural Resources
                AuthorsConservation Strategy Fund (CSF)
                Funding AgencyGEF UNDP – PAGE (Partnership for Action on Green Economy)
                AbstractIn Ecuador, nearly 100,000 people directly depend on Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM). Gold is the main export mineral, and ASGM produces at least 85% of Ecuadorian gold, corresponding to more than USD 300,000,000 in annual income. Despite this importance, the sector lacks access to financing, which produces technological inefficiencies, and the persistent pollution from the use of mercury represents a cost of at least USD 80,000,000 per year. The TSA focuses on alternative scenarios that introduce new technologies to reduce the use of mercury, increasing the government gold purchasing policy and private sector investment.
                Targeted Policies- Processing plants investment policy
                - Central Bank purchasing policy Ecuador
                - Public incentives to regulate the informal sector
                - Pilot project of the Responsible Beneficiation Program implemented (3 processing plants and 2 analytical laboratories with strengthened capacities).
                - National Mining Strategy 
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                Policy Brief


                  Report titleShea forest conservation and sustainable use
                  Year of CompletitionPlanning Stage
                  ClientForestry Commission of Ghana (Climate Change Directorate)
                  Funding AgencyGFC UNDP 
                  AbstractGrowing deforestation and removal of trees make agricultural landscapes increasingly prone to desertification, land degradation, and loss of livelihoods, exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The TSA will assess the contribution of restored landscapes and shea forests to the sectorial economic growth. It will assess existing financial and economic losses and the potential gain of increasing investment in shea forest ecosystems restoration, management, and reducing emissions using a range of indicators and subsequently propose the respective policy reforms needed to achieve a more sustainable development path.  
                  Targeted PoliciesTBD
                  Download ReportComing Soon


                    Report titleEconomic Valuation of the Contribution of Ecosystems to Economic Growth and Human Well-Being: The Closter of Protected Areas of Tusheti and the Georgian Network of Protected Areas
                    Year of Completition2014
                    ClientMinistry of Environment and Green Development of Mongolia
                    AuthorsFlores, Marlon and Adeishvili, Malkhaz.
                    Funding AgencyGEF UNDP 
                    AbstractThe TSA focuses on the cluster of protected areas of Tusheti Region and provides an overview of the contribution of ecosystem services of Georgia’s Network of Protected areas to growth and human well-being. The study informs policymakers and businesses about the economic risks and opportunities of undertaking productive activities that impact on and are influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem services. Its objective is to ensure the long-term input of ecosystem services, such as tourism, food and water supply, timber, hydropower and fisheries, to secure and increase sector productivity, growth and well-being.
                    Targeted Policies- Budgetary allocations policy and budget cuts approach
                    - Sector based fiscal reform: freshwater, hydropower and nature-based tourism
                    - Protected areas entry fees policy
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                      Report titleValuation of ecosystem services of the Chiquimulilla Canal in the artisanal fishing and tourism sectors
                      Year of Completition2017
                      ClientSecretariat for Planning and Programming of the President’s Office (SEGEPLAN)
                      AuthorsEnríquez, Celene, et al.
                      Funding AgencyGEF UNDP 
                      AbstractThe Chiquimulilla canal is critical because of its economic value linked to ecosystem services. Despite this value, the canal receives waste discharges. Therefore, it faces high levels of stress that accelerate the deterioration of the quality and quantity of goods and services that the canal produces. The study compares different scenarios for the fishing, shrimp farming, and tourism sectors to present measures to reduce negative externalities in this sensitive ecosystem
                      Targeted Policies-Municipal budget allocations to ecosystems management (4 municipalities) 
                      -Regional Tourism Plan and budget 
                      -Municipal solid waste management plans
                      -Municipal freshwater management regulatory framework 
                      -Fishing licensing policy 
                      -Land use and restoration policy
                      Download ReportComing Soon


                        Report titleDeforestation-free commodities in Indonesia 
                        Year of CompletitionPlanning stage
                        ClientThe Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs, Ministry of National Development Planning, The Ministry of Agriculture, and District Governments
                        Funding AgencyGEF UNDP 
                        AbstractThe government of Indonesia will apply five TSA to assess opportunities and the potential economic impact of investing in deforestation-free commodities. To this end, the TSA study will compare different ecosystems management approaches in the targeted commodities to assess potential economic losses or gains resulting from maintaining the business-as-usual production systems or adopting a more sustainable path. The TSA aims to support the transition to sustainable value chains in the palm oil, coffee, cocoa, and rice sectors. The five TSA will target five regions: Aceh, N. Sumatera, W. Kalimantan, W. Papua, and S. Sulawesi.
                        Targeted Policies- Landscape management policy to integrating biodiversity conservation, ecosystem restoration and the sustainable production of cash and food crops at scale.
                        Download ReportComing Soon


                          Report titleTargeted Scenario Analysis of the Forest Sector in Kazakhstan 
                          Year of Completition2021
                          ClientThe Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources
                          AuthorsThe Wolfs Company, part of Grant Thornton
                          Funding AgencyGEF UNDP 
                          AbstractThe TSA supports the achievement of the Government’s goals to increased forest cover. Thus, the TSA assesses the impact of two forest management scenarios identified in consultation with stakeholders in Kazakhstan. The first scenario assesses current forest management practices and historical trends. The second, looks at the impact of increasing investments to improve forest management and reach the forest cover target of 5% of the surface of Kazakhstan by 2030
                          Targeted Policies- Increase in annual budgets for forestry management
                          - Strategic spatial planning for forest conservation, protection and reproduction
                          - Improving forest budget planning and cost-effective use 
                          - The 5-year management plan for forest protection institutions
                          - Increase in opportunities for sustainable financing of forest management
                          Download ReportComing Soon


                            Report titleSustainable alternatives to livestock management in the Inner Tien Shan Mountain range
                            Year of CompletitionOngoing
                            ClientState Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry of the Kyrgyz Republic and Vanishing Treasures Project stakeholders
                            AuthorsGonchigsumlaa, Ganzorig, Flores, Marlon, et al.
                            Funding AgencyUNEP Vanishing Treasures Project
                            AbstractMountain communities are heavily dependent on unsustainable livestock practices. Overgrazing and climate change degrade mountain pastures and increase the vulnerability of communities and wildlife to climate change impact. The TSA assesses the financial and economic impact of livestock losses due to degraded pastures, poor field productivity, and predators. The TSA also assesses the shift to sustainable nature-based tourism and other complementary sustainable options, such as beekeeping, to reduce dependency on livestock and explores how improved income could contribute to better conservation, pastures, and wildlife management. The TSA provides data on the cost of shifting from unsustainable to sustainable practices to reduce the impact on mountain pastures and improve local livelihoods.
                            Targeted PoliciesTBD
                            Download ReportComing Soon


                              Report titleHigh value conservation forest and deforestation-free palm oil
                              Year of Completition2020
                              ClientInter-Ministerial Commission on Palm Oil Concessions
                              AuthorsConservation Strategy Fund (CSF)
                              Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                              AbstractThe Government of Liberia has prioritized the development of palm oil agroforestry concessions, and the interest from global companies confirms palm oil is a significant economic opportunity for the country. Communities and smallholder producers are eager to engage in palm oil concessions because they bring employment and socioeconomic benefits. Nevertheless, the development of the oil palm sector has stalled due to contradicting forest management and concessions policies. The TSA compares economic gains and losses from different possible oil palm development paths in Liberia, including community participation.
                              Targeted Policies- National interpretation of RSPO principles and management framework 
                              - Executive Decree on Government’s position on concessions and concessionaires
                              - Liberia’s National Forest Definition Framework 
                              - Smallholder palm oil development policy (credit to finance start-up costs) 
                              - Extension services and sourcing inputs policy 
                              - Contracting (between the concessionaire and out growers), royalties and benefit sharing policies
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                              Policy Brief


                                Report title

                                An Economic Valuation of the Contribution of Ecosystem Services of the Network of Protected Areas to the Economy of Mongolia

                                Year of Completition



                                Ministry of Environment and Green Development


                                Flores, Marlon, Gonchigsumlaa, Ganzorig and Surenjav, Khorolmaa 

                                Funding Agency

                                GEF UNDP


                                The study analyses how a shift from Business-As-Usual PA management to Investing in Natural Capital may result in more sustainable sector productivity and human well-being in Mongolia. The TSA considers the following key sectors: nature-based tourism (NBT), irrigated agriculture, livestock, forests, mining, and drinkable water.

                                Targeted Policies

                                - Protected area’s budget allocations policy: elimination of annual PA budget cuts.

                                Download Report

                                An Economic Valuation of Contribution of Ecosystem Services of the Network of Protected Areas to the Economy of Mongolia


                                Valuation of Contribution of Ecosystem Services of the Orkhon Valley National Park to Sectoral Economic Development 


                                  Report titleProduction of Intelligent and Adaptable Livestock in the Paraguayan Chaco 
                                  Year of Completition2021
                                  ClientMinistry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Livestock Cooperatives
                                  AuthorsConservation Strategy Fund (CSF)
                                  Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                  AbstractThe Chaco region supports almost half of Paraguay's livestock sector, and its growth promotes horizontal expansion and land use change to create new productive grasslands. The conversion of forests to pastures has generated conflict between the different actors in the region. The study focuses on the economic reasons and legal reform to improve sustainability, the producers' profitability, and the positioning of Paraguayan meat in regional and global markets for sustainable commodities.
                                  Targeted Policies- Corporate investment in deforestation-free beef policy
                                  - Licensing policy for the livestock sector 
                                  - Institutionalizing sustainable livestock standards and branding (corporate and public regulatory framework) 
                                  - Public investment in local infrastructure and social services policy
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                                  Full Report

                                  Policy Brief


                                    Report titleTSA for the Cacao Value Chain in Peru 
                                    Year of Completition2021
                                    ClientThe Ministry of Agriculture and The Ministry of Environment of Peru
                                    AuthorsWolfs Company, part of Grant Thornton
                                    Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                    AbstractThe study compares the financial, economic, and environmental impact of continuing with the current practices in cacao production in the Peruvian Amazon region with adopting alternative practices, which could generate higher profitability and, simultaneously, are more environmentally sustainable. The premise for defining alternative practices is based on meeting demand levels for cacao in 2030 and reducing pressure on forest ecosystems
                                    Targeted Policies- National Plan for Developing the Cocoa-Chocolate Value Chain 2020-2030 
                                    - Agricultural finance and credit policy
                                    - Land use and landscape management policy 
                                    - Standards associated with zero-deforestation
                                    - Municipal agricultural competitiveness policy
                                    - Regulatory framework for cocoa consistency: quality, quality and safety 
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                                    Report titleTSA for the Palm Oil Value Chain in Peru
                                    Year of Completition2021
                                    ClientThe Ministry of Agriculture and The Ministry of Environment of Peru
                                    AuthorsWolfs Company, part of Grant Thornton
                                    Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                    AbstractThe study compares the financial, economic, and environmental impact of continuing with the current practices in palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon region with adopting alternative practices, which could generate higher profitability and, simultaneously, are more environmentally sustainable. The premise for defining alternative practices is based on meeting demand levels for palm oil in 2030 and reducing pressure on forest ecosystems.
                                    Targeted PoliciesTBD
                                    Download ReportFull Report



                                      Report titleAn Assessment of the Contribution of Ecosystems in Protected Areas to Sector Growth and Human Well Being in Romania
                                      Year of Completition2012
                                      ClientThe Romanian Forestry Department ROMSILVA
                                      AuthorsBogdan Popa, Camille Bann
                                      Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                      AbstractThe Carpathian Network of Protected Areas (CNPA) has been considered insufficient in scale, connectivity, and management to prevent irreversible biodiversity loss. The territory faces various pressures, including the overexploitation of forest resources, habitat degradation, fragmentation due to poorly planned development, and underfunding. The study aims to generate evidence of how a sustainably managed CNPA supports productivity in critical sectors such as tourism, forestry, and industry and demonstrates costs associated with unsustainable management
                                      Targeted Policies- Protected area’s budget allocations framework 
                                      - PA entry fees policy 
                                      - Water-based payments for environmental services framework
                                      - Revenue sharing mechanisms
                                      Download ReportComing Soon



                                        Report title

                                        Sustainable nature-based tourism and climate-smart agriculture in the Virunga


                                        Year of CompletitionOn-going

                                        The Great Apes Survival Partnership (UN-GRASP), state governments, the Greater Virunga

                                        Transboundary Collaboration Secretariat.

                                        AuthorsBush, Glenn, Flores, Marlon et al.
                                        Funding AgencyUNEP Vanishing Treasures Projec
                                        AbstractMountain communities in the Virunga landscape are heavily dependent on crop farming, supplemented by natural resources, for income and food due to increasing food insecurity in the region. Prolonged dry seasons put increased pressure on water resources, negatively affecting small-scale farmers. Additionally, there is increased human-wildlife conflict due to crop raiding by species suffering the consequences of climate change. Thus, if current practices continue, people will increase their dependency on resources from within the national parks. The TSA assesses the economics behind nature-based tourism and climate-smart agriculture options to provide evidence-based data on shifting to sustainable practices to increase livelihood diversity, reduce food insecurity, improve local communities' livelihoods, and reduce the impact on mountain ecosystems.
                                        Targeted PoliciesTBD
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                                        Coming Soon 




                                          Report titleTowards a lower impact artisanal and small-scale gold mining
                                          Year of CompletitionOngoing
                                          ClientThe Ministry of Natural Resources of Suriname, Mining Directorate
                                          AuthorsThe Wolfs Company, part of Grant Thornton
                                          Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                          AbstractThe TSA supports the uptake of more responsible environmental artisanal small-scale gold mining practices to demonstrate the environmental and economic benefits of environmentally responsible mining practices (ERMPs) and technologies. The proposed model relies on identifying benefits for miners that arise from applying ERMPs, including social and economic benefits, and designing a national-level financial, fiscal, and regulatory incentives system to help re-orient the market towards more responsibly sourced gold.
                                          Targeted PoliciesTBD
                                          Download ReportComing Soon



                                            Report titleCombating Illegal Wildlife Trade, with a focus on Ivory, Rhino Horn, Tiger and Pangolin in Thailand
                                            Year of Completition2021
                                            ClientDepartment of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
                                            AuthorsInternational Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) 
                                            Funding AgencyGEF UNDP
                                            AbstractWildlife crime drives biodiversity loss and impacts livelihoods, economies, and regional security. Thailand is a source, transit, and destination country for many different types of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. This study focused on the social, economic, and environmental losses deriving from the IWT to Thailand and globally and the benefits associated with a reduction/elimination of wildlife trafficking.
                                            Targeted Policies- Annual budget allocations to enforcement agencies to combat IWT and result-based performance indicators.
                                            - National wildlife tourism strategy, including reformed protected area entry fees, investment policies, and business planning
                                            - Investment to advance investigative techniques, support the DNP's Wildlife Forensic Science (WIFOS) laboratory, and upscale on-the-ground operations
                                            - Strengthen Thai WEN, informational management and introduce integrated enforcement networks that include local communities
                                            - Private sector investments, and other sources, including international donor transfers.
                                            Download ReportComing Soon



                                            TSA Success Stories From Around the World

                                            For more information on TSA, contact Marlon Flores at Global Technical Advisor on Policy and Economic Analysis -TSA, Food and Agricultural Commodity Systems (FACS)