Strengthening the Rule of Law and Restoring Peace in Eswatini


The Africa Minigrids Programme (AMP) aims to support remote rural communities to access clean energy by increasing the financial viability and promoting scaled-up commercial investment in minigrids in Eswatini. The four-year programme is supported by UNDP and financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). It is implemented by the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority (ESERA) under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy. 


The high national electrification rate masks the variance between urban centres (90%) and rural areas (69%). The Kingdom of Eswatini Energy Masterplan 2034 notes that most households are within a kilometre of the national grid, but it is increasingly expensive to extend the network to remote areas. These realities drive rural use of traditional fuels, especially wood and paraffin – with wood fuel providing approximately 90% of total rural energy. 

Domestic and commercial use of wood fuel is unsustainable and associated with indoor pollution, which contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases as well as deforestation. This situation is exacerbated by the increasing number of small businesses such as butcheries that roast meat for sale as well as a high number of individuals that are increasingly setting up along the country’s roads to roast and sell meat and green mealies to the public.

Major Achievements

  • An inclusive national dialogue to identify mini-grid delivery models, a vision and a roadmap, clarifying priority interventions for an integrated approach to off-grid electrification facilitated.
  • Public officials including the energy regulator, and government ministries trained in identifying and incorporating cost-reduction levers and innovative business models.

Project Outcomes 

The project aims to: 

  • Address barriers to cost-effective mini-grid development within the policy and regulatory environment. 
  • Demonstrate innovative business models, based on cost reduction, that can encourage private sector participation in renewable energy mini-grid development in the country.