Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol is an international environmental agreement with universal ratification to protect the earth’s ozone layer by eliminating use of ozone depleting substances (ODS). The thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer would allow increased harmful ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth, resulting in higher incidence of skin cancers and eye cataracts, more-compromised immune systems, and negative effects on watersheds, agricultural lands and forests.  As a result of its implementation by global community since its adoption in 1987, it has successfully eliminated over 98 percent of controlled ODS, helping reverse the damage to the ozone layer. A very significant co-benefit is that it has, from 1990 to 2010, reduced cumulative CO2-equiivalent emissions by 135 billion tonnes.

However, important challenges remain. Parties to the Protocol are working to complete the phase out of ODS by 2030. In 2016, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the Kigali Amendment. This Amendment calls for a gradual phasedown in the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs. HFCs are very potent greenhouse gases used in refrigeration, air conditioning, aerosol cans, fire protection, and solvents.

As an implementing agency of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (MLF), UNDP supports developing countries eliminate ODS. UNDP is also an Implementing Agency for the Global Environment Facility (GEF) which funds similar programmes in countries with economies in transition. UNDP services include technology transfer and technical assistance, formulation and implementation of country and sector strategies, capacity building, accessing funding from different sources, and facilitating public/private partnerships. Since 1991, UNDP’s Montreal Protocol programme has proudly partnered with around 120 countries supporting their obligations under the Montreal Protocol.