Causality Assessment for Landscape Interventions

How do we reflect on whether our landscape or jurisdictional interventions are being effective? Would the changes we observe have happened anyway without our intervention/s? What can we do to increase our chances for impact?

To address these key questions, UNDP developed the Causality Assessment for Landscape Interventions (CALI) within the framework of the GEF-funded Good Growth Partnership (GGP)’s framework.

The first version of CALI was finalized in 2021. It consists of a guidebook and set of templates which offer project managers and their teams an actionable approach to reflect systematically and systemically on the validity of their Theory of Change through examining implementation and achievements to date, with a strong emphasis on unpacking causality between and among different levels of results. Conclusions and recommendations grounded in the findings of the assessment allow teams to plan for corrective and/or catalyzing actions to increase their chances of impact within the current or a next-phase project.

The tool is applied through four main stages:

1.      Scoping – when the geographical scope of the analysis is defined or confirmed, and the key landscape or jurisdictional stakeholders are identified at all levels.

2.      Situation Analysis – whereby the CALI project team develops or refines their systemic understanding of the current situation and trends in the landscapes when it comes to deforestation and its key drivers. Ongoing interventions and their key objectives are also identified and analyzed.

3.      Contribution Analysis – whereby the CALI project team, after some time of implementation, engages with achievements and enabling, hindering and co-dependency factors to reflect around causality and deepen their understanding of project contributions to reducing deforestation and/or affecting its key drivers. This is done through a participatory process which ensures the engagement of representatives of all key landscape or jurisdictional stakeholders.

4.      Reporting and Recommendations – when the CALI project team draws conclusions and drafts recommendations addressed at different development actors, together with key landscape or jurisdictional stakeholders.

 CALI is currently being piloted in the following countries and landscapes within the framework of the GGP:

·        In Indonesia, in the districts of Sintang (West Kalimantan province), Pelalawan (Riau), and South Tapanuli (North Sumatra);

·        In Liberia, in the North-Western Liberia Landscape.

·        In Paraguay, in the Western Region (Paraguayan Chaco).

These experiences will inform a second and final version of the tool, which is expected to be published in 2022.

For more information, please contact Andrea Bina at

For Further Information:


Andrea Bina, Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Specialist, at: