Goal 10: Reduced inequalities

It is well documented that income inequality is on the rise, with the richest 10 percent earning up to 40 percent of total global income. The poorest 10 percent earn only between 2 percent and 7 percent of total global income. In developing countries, inequality has increased by 11 percent if we take into account the growth of population.

These widening disparities require the adoption of sound policies to empower the bottom percentile of income earners, and promote economic inclusion of all regardless of sex, race or ethnicity.

Income inequality is a global problem that requires global solutions. This involves improving the regulation and monitoring of financial markets and institutions, encouraging development assistance and foreign direct investment to regions where the need is greatest. Facilitating the safe migration and mobility of people is also key to bridging the widening divide.

Facts and figures

10%

The richest 10 percent earn up to 40 percent of total global income.

.70

As measured by the Gini coefficient, global inequality reached a record .70 in 2005

217 years

At the current rate of progress, the World Economic Forum says it will take 217 years to close the gender gap in employment opportunities and pay.

11%

On average, income inequality increased by 11 percent in developing countries between 1990 and 2010.

300%

In developing countries, rural women are up to three times more likely to die in childbirth than women living in urban centres.

7.5 cents

For every dollar sent home in 2015, migrant workers paid 7.5 cents in fees, more than double the target rate of 3 percent.

  • By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

  • By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

  • Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

  • Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

  • Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

  • Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

  • Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

  • Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

  • Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

  • By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent
SDG 1SDG 2SDG 3SDG 4SDG 5SDG 6SDG 7SDG 8SDG 9SDG 10SDG 11SDG 12SDG 13SDG 14SDG 15SDG 16SDG 17
Goals in action
SDG 4 SDG 5 SDG 10 SDG 16

70 years of progress on human rights

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. This simple yet radical idea is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human…

more ›

SDG 1 SDG 5 SDG 10 SDG 11 SDG 12

United for a clean city

Gregoria Cruz doesn't just recycle waste, she re-imagines it. She's she's on a mission to create a culture of recycling Peru's second city.

more ›

SDG 2 SDG 6 SDG 10 SDG 13

In search of water

In drought-stricken Somalia, a sand dam provides vital water access to people facing displacement and the spectre of famine.

more ›

SDG 3 SDG 4 SDG 5 SDG 10

Playing to win: Muzghan's story

Afghan volleyball champion Muzghan Sadaat encourages young women to fight for their dreams.

more ›

SDG 1 SDG 9 SDG 10 SDG 11

Transforming challenges into opportunities

By 2035, most of the world’s poor will be living in urban areas. Achieving the Global Goals will require us to make cities more inclusive and…

more ›

SDG 4 SDG 5 SDG 8 SDG 10

Yazidi women find economic independence

The Dost Bakery is a small cake business in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Dost means “friend” in Kurdish, and the bakery is run by 10 friends, all…

more ›

SDG 8 SDG 10 SDG 12 SDG 15

Another kind of wealth: Ancestral culture

Where the Pemón live, the majestic landscape holds gold, diamonds and other precious minerals. But the indigenous people have another valuable…

more ›

SDG 6 SDG 9 SDG 10 SDG 11

Flood warning systems in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Flooding and landslides affected more than a million people in 2014. Because early warning saves lives, UNDP is helping to establish a flood…

more ›

SDG 3 SDG 5 SDG 10 SDG 16

Giving voice to women survivors in Guatemala

More than 30 years after she saw her family and community torn apart by Guatemala’s decades-long civil war, Elena de Paz decided to tell her story.

more ›

UNDP Around the world