CDM Opportunities and Challenges in Ethiopia | UNDP's Capacity Development in Ethiopia

Country Overview

With an area of 1.2 million square kilometers, Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, in the northeastern corner of the African continent. The region also comprises three other neighboring countries, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, on its northern, eastern and southeastern borders. On its southern and western borders, the country is bounded by Kenya and Sudan, respectively.

The topography of the country varies from lowlands lying below sea level to high altitudes reaching 3,000 meters altitude.  Accordingly, there are different climatic regimes prevailing in different regions of the country. These range from very hot zones in the lowlands with semi-desert characteristics to temperate zones in the highland areas with more pleasant temperature variations. Under normal weather conditions, there are regular shorter rainy months around March, and longer months from June to mid-September.

Overview of the Energy Sector

The energy sector in Ethiopia can be broadly categorized into two major components: traditional and modern. As 80% of the country’s population is engaged in the small-scale agricultural sector and live in rural areas, traditional energy sources represent the principal sources of energy in Ethiopia. The traditional energy sources mainly depend on fuelwood, charcoal and animal dung, which are diminishing rapidly in availability due to continued deforestation.

Hydro-electricity and imported petroleum products are major sources of modern energy, used mainly for lighting, transport and the industrial sector in urban areas.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The latest data for Ethiopian greenhouse gas emissions derives from the 2001 National Communication submitted to the UNFCCC.

Aggregation of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions across four key economic sectors (Energy, Agriculture, Industry, Waste) indicates national emissions of 48 million tonnes CO2-equivalent, excluding CO2 emissions/removals from the Land Use, Land Use Change & Forestry (LULUCF) sector. This suggests per capita emissions of 0.9 tonnes CO2e per year.

Sector-wise, Ethiopia’s emission profile is dominated by emissions from Energy and Agriculture, contributing 90% of the total; gas-wise, it is dominated by CH4, contributing 80% of the total CO2-equivalent emissions (Ethiopian National Meteorology Agency).