Inclusive Development

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Privatising Basic Utilities in Sub-Saharan Africa: The MDG Impact

This policy research brief draws on the findings of a UNDP-supported book to analyse the effects of privatisation on the delivery of water and electricity. It concludes that privatisation has been a widespread failure. This has hampered progress on the Millennium Development Goals for both water more

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Pro-Poor Fiscal Policy in Cambodia

This publication reviews Cambodia's historical and current macroeconomic trends and policy directions. It illuminates a number of conclusions regarding aspects of Cambodia’s current macro-fiscal strategy and point out the implications for the macroeconomics of poverty reduction. more

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Reforming without Resourcing

Public water supply systems have increasingly been subject to commercialisation or corporatisation in the developing world. By reforming the public sector in the image of independent and self-sufficient private enterprises, the chief aim of commercialisation is to improve the efficiency of more

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Regional Integration and Human Development: A Pathway for Africa

The report discusses four main channels linking integration and human development: income; access to services, empowerment, and sustainability. It assesses how factors common to many countries might condition the impacts of regional integration on human development. This qualitative analysis is more

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Scaling up Local Innovations for Transformational Change

Scaling up local development initiatives are important for achieving the MDGs and human development. While significant progress has been made towards meeting the MDG targets globally, large disparities still persist within countries. Poverty remains concentrated in rural areas and urban slums, and more

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Small-Scale Water Providers in Kenya: Pioneers or Predators?

In 2008, 83 percent of Kenyans living in urban areas, had access to safe drinking water – down from 91 percent in 1990. This gradual deterioration in urban water access is mainly due to growing demand caused by rapid population growth, especially in the informal settlements. According to UN more

Small-Scale, Private Water Service Provision: Case Studies of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya

Small-Scale, Private Water Service Provision: Case Studies of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya

This series of case studies focuses on issues with private provision of water services in urban areas of Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.   Small scale providers increase water supply coverage – an essential service in fast-growing cities – and reduce time poverty. However, system of water more

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Social Enterprise: A New Model for Poverty Reduction and Employment Generation

Social enterprises provide an innovative approach and are effective as poverty reduction agents that can contribute to the promotion of cohesive communities. This publication reviews the results of a two-year social enterprise study in Europe and the CIS. more

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Social Protection, Growth and Employment: Evidence from India, Kenya, Malawi, Mexico, Peru and Tajikistan

The global financial and economic crisis has highlighted and reinforced the need for effective social protection mechanisms that can not only prevent  households from falling into poverty but also permanently raise their earnings. Meanwhile, social protection policies must be consistent with more

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Taming Finance by Empowering Regulators

This paper examines important and desirable reforms of the international financial regulatory and taxation architecture, both from the perspective of their technical desirability and their political feasibility. The paper provides insights into how to increase the chances that desirable changes in more

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Tariff Hikes with Low Investment: The Urban Water Sector in Zambia

According to current estimates, the MDG of halving the 1.1 billion people without access to safe drinking water by 2015 will only be achieved by 2040, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Why will it take this long? Because tariffs are unaffordable and investments in infrastructure are extremely low. more

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The Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Developing Countries

This paper identifies three key channels of transmission of the financial crisis from developed to developing countries: capital flows, trade and remittances, and provides broad recommendations for policy responses at the national level, proposing sweeping reforms at the global and regional level. more

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The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Millennium Development Goals-based National Development Strategies: Training Modules

This training course from 2007 provides guidance to UN Country Teams and their development partners on the key areas and entry points for working with civil society to design an MDG-based national development strategy. It is a tool to help engage civil society at each stage of the policy process - more

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The Role of Economic Policies in Poverty Reduction

This practice note addresses pro-poor economic policies, including macroeconomic policies, restructuring and redistribution. It charts out the general direction for UNDP assistance to programme countries to achieve the greatest impact on poverty by combining sustainable growth and greater equity. more

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The Role of Public Investment in Poverty Reduction

 This paper explores the linkages between public investment, growth and poverty reduction, with the aim of providing an overall view of existing theories, evidence and methods, and of examining ways to provide better guidance to policy-makers in the use of available techniques and information more

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Towards Human Resilience: Sustaining MDG Progress in an Age of Economic Uncertainty

The recent global economic crisis has reinforced significant concerns about the impact of financial and economic shocks on human development. The increasing frequency of such shocks raises important questions about their systemic character and the ability of developing countries to withstand the more

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Towards a Human Rights-Based Approach to Food Security: A Self-Assessment Tool to Achieve Balanced Plant Regimes

The agricultural sector is a crucial source of food, employment and trade, and so it contributes to overall economic growth and poverty reduction. Increasingly, the privatization and spread of commercial seeds is harming agricultural biodiversity in developing countries. In particular, intellectual more

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UNDP’s Strategy for Supporting Sustainable and Equitable Management of the Extractive Sector for Human Development

The management of extractive sectors (oil, gas and minerals) is a major challenge and opportunity for developing countries today. The exploitation of non-renewable natural resources has often triggered violent conflicts, degraded the environment, worsened gender and other inequalities, displaced more

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Utilities' Pricing and the Poor: The Case of Armenia

This paper examines the impact of the privatization of certain utilities, including electricity, water, gas, and heating, on poverty in Armenia. more

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Utility Provision: Contract Design in the Interest of the Poor

Access to basic utility services such as water, electricity and sanitation are essential for meeting internationally agreed development goals. For many of the world’s poorest people, however, these services remain unaffordable or unavailable. The losses in productivity and human potential are more