Building Resilience in response to the Syria crisis Building Resilience in response to the Syria crisis

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UNDP Integrated Project Portfolio

3RP - Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan

SRP - Strategic Response Plan for Syria

Foreword

Foreword

For more than four years the international community has been challenged to respond effectively to the deepening Syria crisis and its impacts within Syria and across neighboring countries.

What is needed most urgently is a political solution, and the United Nations and partners are working tirelessly towards that.

At the same time, as an international community we have a responsibility to ensure that no effort is spared to help people and communities cope with the crisis even as it unfolds. The United Nations and our partners have supported life-saving humanitarian assistance by providing food, water and shelter to as many people affected as we can.

However, people need more than life-saving assistance, especially in the case of such a protracted crisis. They also need to maintain livelihoods, education, access to healthcare, and more. People need to preserve hope for the future and to be ready to recover from this devastating crisis, to regain social cohesion, and to resume progress as soon as they can.

This is the essence of what we call resilience at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), a cornerstone of our response to the Syria crisis and an approach that is increasingly gaining support across the international community.

The resilience-based approach to the Syria crisis finds strong resonance in the Syria Strategic Response Plan (SRP), which outlines work in support of people inside Syria; and the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP) which guides work in neighboring countries in support of refugees and the local communities hosting them.

Together these plans require USD 8.4 billion in funding, and partners pledged USD 3.6 billion for their implementation at the Third International Pledging Conference in Response to the Syria Crisis, hosted by Kuwait in March, 2015.

However, only the full financing of these plans will allow the United Nations and our partners to achieve the maximum impact for the most affected communities; thus we must continue to mobilize support for this urgent work.

As a lead agency on the ground across the region, UNDP plays a strong role in implementing the resilience-based response. This document outlines the programmes and projects of UNDP in this regard. I urge our partners to consult this information in detail and to confirm their commitment at a time when this region needs support more than ever.

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Introduction

Introduction

The Syria Crisis is the largest political, humanitarian and development challenge of our time.

It has taken enormous casualties, caused widespread destruction, forced massive displacement, rolled back development progress and threatened generations across Syria and neighbouring countries. It has also challenged the international community to think – and act – differently in our collective response.

UNDP has been at the forefront of new initiatives, working with national and international partners and across the UN system to bring about a shift in approach towards building resilience by addressing the humanitarian and development aspects of the crisis at the same time, in a coordinated fashion, through sustainable and nationally-led responses.

UNDP’s portfolio for 2015, detailed in this compendium, is USD 418 million, of which 41% is for basic infrastructure and services (health, water, waste, protection, rehabilitation); 41% is for livelihood support (ranging from emergency employment to micro-businesses to economic development); 4% is for social cohesion programming in high-risk areas (youth, peacebuilding, access to justice, rule of law); 3% to build capacity of municipalities and local partners to plan, manage and deliver services; 1% for aid effectiveness; and, 10% for effective use of scarce natural resources and environmental sustainability.

This portfolio is the result of lasting partnership between UNDP, national counterparts and a wide range of implementing partners at the field level.

The approach in each country is tailored to respond to local needs and the economic and political environment. In Syria and Iraq, projects focus in infrastructure, protection and basic social services. In Egypt and Lebanon they emphasize livelihoods. Lebanon is taking preventive security measures and addressing social and political cohesion. Jordan and Turkey concentrate on economic and enterprise development; waste and environmental concerns; and strengthening government effectiveness at the grassroots level.

We’re using a fast-track approach to identify key tension points, understand root causes and craft durable solutions quickly with our partners on the ground. UNDP is working with our expanded network of 1,000 partners to carry out interventions, build local capacity to effectively plan, manage and deliver transformative interventions. Our presence at the national and local levels gives us the pulse across the region and gives us a broader perspective on what is working to effect change.

Only by investing in sustainable solutions is it possible to contribute to preserve pockets of stability in Syria and address the unprecedented displacement of people. Building resilience implies enhancing national capacities in Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt to cope and recover from the impact of the crisis. The effectiveness and mid- to long-term impact of each dollar invested in resilience cannot be overstated.

This compendium presents the case for a robust investment in the resilience of people, communities and institutional systems affected by the crisis.

With your help, we can bring about transformational change that supports sustainable human development and contributes to a better, more resilient future for the countries and peoples affected by this profound crisis.

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Why does investing in Resilience matter?

Because

Any possible durable response should make the most of existing capacities, knowledge, resources and technology available in the region. Compared to other similar areas exposed to crisis, the region benefits from a critical mass of domestic resources to be fostered and used for sustainable responses.

Refugees face huge challenges and have serious humanitarian needs that must be met. However, host countries also bear the burden of the crisis and are in need of support, especially in situations of protracted crisis and where refugees are living in host communities rather than in camps. Moreover, humanitarian and development assistance to fragile and conflict-affected states is facing increased demand and reduced available resources throughout the world.

With the threat of further destabilization in the region, there is increasing recognition that humanitarian and life-saving interventions alone are insufficient to meet the needs of and mitigate the risks that host communities face. A more integrated approach that simultaneously and coherently addresses short, medium and long-term needs is required in order to support the conflict-affected countries.

Investing in resilience will:
  • Optimize existing resources by investing in more durable solutions and avoiding parallel mechanisms
  • Strengthen infrastructures and national capacities that are more sustainable over the long term
  • Strengthen the capacity of individuals, host communities and states to cope with and recover from possible future shocks
  • Reduce the cost of the international response in the medium term

Why is Resilience the best answer to people's needs?

Because

People’s needs and aspiration are best supported through a process of transformation leading to self-sustainability, improvement and growth.

In a region that achieved middle-income levels and a steady increase in human development performance over the last decades, humanitarian assistance is only the first step that allows people and communities to cope with the shock of the crisis. The protracted nature of the crisis and its long-term impact on the people affected calls for a more comprehensive set of solutions. These solutions should allow individuals and communities to survive and adapt, to return to their previous development levels and to improve and transform their livelihoods skills in order to capitalize on the opportunities of a changing region.

Investing in resilience will:
  • Support a process of transformation leading to self-sustainability, improvement and growth
  • Support employment generation and livelihoods opportunities
  • Ensure that women play a greater role in the achievement of growth and sustainable solutions
  • Improve environmental performance and provide a cleaner, healthier and more productive environment to the population

How is Resilience contributing to social and regional stability?

Because

Resilience-based strategies aim to enhance national conflict prevention capacities and structures and promote local governance models that ensure the inclusion of diversity within and between communities. At the same time, they will strengthen local communities and limit instances of violence based on perceived inequalities and access to limited resource.

Prior to the Syrian civil war, the sub region had already suffered from a series of regional crises. The resulting waves of displacement and refugees put severe strains on national systems and host communities. In this fragile environment, the political, humanitarian and development risks posed by the Syrian conflict have begun to threaten the stability of the region.

As the violence and fighting in Syria have moved more deeply into the region, a continuum linking the humanitarian crisis and its impact on development, together with social cohesion and stability is emerging, pointing to the risk of conflict spill-over from Syria into neighbouring countries. For instance, Iraq, in addition to hosting hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees, has now been entirely engulfed by conflict, with massive internal displacement putting further pressure on the management of the crisis.

In other parts of the region, growing instances of violence based on perceived inequalities, as well as mounting demands for municipal and government services, are weakening relationships and structures that help nurture stability within communities.

Preserving social cohesion and preventing conflicts is a central objective of the newly adopted resilience-based development approach. Finally, targeted interventions will nurture a culture of tolerance to counter all forms of extremism, xenophobia and radicalism, which threaten peace and stability.

Resilience-based development programmes will:
  • Enhance national conflict prevention capacities and structures
  • Promote local governance models that ensure the inclusion of diversity within communities
  • Strengthen local communities and limit instances of violence based on perceived inequalities
  • Equip young boys and girls with the skills to live in multicultural and diverse societies

Why collaboration with partners increases impact and effectiveness?

Because

The nature of the crisis in Syria, its prolonged duration and its devastation inside the country and across the entire sub region, is challenging standard aid responses and coordination mechanisms. Joining the knowledge and resources of humanitarian and development partners as well as the capacities, technology and infrastructure of the private and public sectors to better respond to the crisis is imperative.

Building a robust partnership alliance for resilience means, in practical terms, going beyond the humanitarian and development silos to make a more strategic, intensive and integrated use of external and domestic resources and capacities in the sub region.

To facilitate a paradigm shift in the response to the crisis, UNDP rallied all UN development agencies to support the adoption of the resilience-based approach within the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), then promoted the 3RP; a global first for the UN in terms of its response to crises.

The Final Communiqué of the Berlin Conference on the Syrian Refugee Situation held on 28 October 2014 welcomed the UN’s coordinating role and noted that “to ensure comprehensive and coherent humanitarian and development responses, donors, international organisations, the UN and host countries will overcome institutional barriers to work together to reduce transaction costs and duplication. All participants will continue to coordinate closely under host country lead supported by the UN.”

Many partners, including national and local government authorities, non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, refugee and impacted community representatives, are now involved in the delivery of the 3RP and SRP and ensuring sustainability at all levels.

An alliance of partners for resilience will:
  • Mainstream the resilience-based approach in the 3RP and SRP implementation
  • Expand the donor base of the response to include development actors
  • Promote innovation in the design and delivery of solutions to the people and communities affected by the crisis
  • Monitor progress in the resilience agenda and collect lessons to be applied to other crisis contexts
  • Expand the solution toolkit by involving the private sector, academia and the larger development community

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Syria

Select a programme:

  • SPr1Solid waste and debris management in crisis time to enhance community resilience and improve living conditions
  • SPr2Comprehensive rehabilitation project for persons with disabilities
  • SPr3Rehabilitation of basic and social infrastructure
  • SPr4Restoration of disrupted livelihoods of the affected population including female-headed households through the provision of micro grants, tools, assets and vocational training
  • SPr5Capacity development of NGOs, CBOs and local actors in the field of early recovery and livelihoods: Promoting social cohesion and reconciliation through youth-led community based activities

SPr1
Solid waste and debris management in crisis time to enhance community resilience and improve living conditions

The Project

To address the difficult issue of debris and solid waste and to help citizens cope to meet basic needs UNDP is establishing, with NGO partners, a waste management programme. Key elements of the project include:

  • Assessing the need for solid waste and debris management in high-risk areas
  • Identifying local partners
  • Working with local NGO partners to create a sustainable solid waste programme in each targeted neighborhood

The project results in local capacity to manage the influx of debris and solid waste. The project has many long-term benefits including improved living conditions, empowered community organizations and increased social cohesion.

Budget 15,012,000 USD
The Issue

Solid waste management systems in Syria are overstrained with the high influx of internally displaced persons and destruction and/or damages of basic infrastructure (including sewage systems, secondary networks and cesspits). Equipment and heavy machinery normally used for solid waste management are often looted, destroyed, and not functioning due to the need of new spare parts and maintenance. This contributes to large amounts of garbage piled up in the streets, deteriorating the health and environmental situation and further exacerbating difficult living conditions.

Strategy

UNDP has initiated the waste management programme and is training NGO partners to manage and operate the programme. The objectives are to build capacity of basic services and to bolster livelihoods of the most vulnerable.

The strategy is to embed the programme in the local economy so waste issues can be addressed and provide jobs for local citizens. In the long term, this programme can be the basis for future work, continuing to address waste and pollution issues as the crisis subsides.

Partnership Framework

Since the beginning of 2014, UNDP scaled up its early recovery and resilience interventions targeting twelve highly affected governorates in Syria. Debris removal and solid waste management was a high priority in both recovery efforts. It also helped individuals cope financially by providing emergency employment. Relying on its local approach in planning and programming, UNDP is currently implementing 47 recovery, resilience and livelihoods projects, in partnership with local NGOs, CBOs and faith-based organizations. As of July 2014, a total of 1,527,977 crisis affected people across Syria benefitted from UNDP's support.

Activities

The project follows an eleven-step process where UNDP helps build local capacity to address immediate waste management issues, establish recovery, reuse and recycling systems that reduce environmental impact, and generate short-term employment opportunities. The process is as follows:

  • Assess the need for solid waste/debris management in targeted neighborhoods and shelters
  • Identify local partners by mapping all stakeholders
  • Recruit national and international experts in debris management
  • Implement cash-for-work programmes/emergency employment programmes for solid waste/debris management (removal, sorting and recycling)
  • Work with NGO partner(s) to oversee collecting and sorting solid waste/debris from targeted neighborhoods
  • Identify possibilities for recovery, reuse and, recycling options
  • Establish a "waste bank" to recycle debris so it can be re-used in reconstruction work
  • Produce biogas and fuel briquettes by removing debris from main roads and main buildings
  • Compost organic solid waste to be used in fertilizing by demolishing buildings which are considered unstable and might be hazardous
  • Identify and procure necessary tools, equipment and machineries for the recycling process

The projects/activities create an enabling environment where local communities set up waste management programs; learn how to remove, sort, and reuse waste; and are empowered to continue the programme after UNDP exits. These programmes enhance the municipalities' capacity to deliver effective public services and as a result, improve the local environment. Removal of tons of rubble from the main and secondary roads is making it easier for internally displaced persons to return to their houses. More specifically, the programme has resulted in:

  • More than 7,700 jobs created in solid waste and debris management
  • Solid waste and debris removal from shelters and neighborhoods and its proper disposal
  • Long-term sustainability through:
    • The availability of tools and equipment for solid waste and debris management in targeted communities
    • The establishment of a local NGO in each target area

And at least five training sessions have been conducted in each target area for 7,700 workers, including 885 women. These sessions have covered:

  • Solid Waste Management techniques to improve hygiene and environmental conditions
  • Debris Management techniques to improve living conditions and promote the return of internally displaced persons to the crisis-affected areas
  • Hygiene promotion and awareness

SPr2
Comprehensive rehabilitation project for persons with disabilities in Syria

The Project

UNDP uses a twin-track approach to ensure achievement of results and impact:

  • Societal track: Mainstreaming disability issues in all sectors of early recovery and livelihoods responses by ensuring that services are inclusive and accessible to persons with disabilities. It includes advocacy of protection, provision of emergency assistance, and expansion of early recovery efforts. This involves identifying and overcoming barriers within society that exclude persons with disabilities (PWD). These barriers may be physical, attitudinal, legal etc.
  • Disability-specific track: Empowering PWDs and their families along with supporting NGOs and community-based organizations to address their specific needs. It includes:
    • Rehabilitation services (e.g. disability aids, mobility aids and assistive devices)
    • Socio-economic support to PWDs or their families in the form of employment in specialized workshops that include counseling, health services and social support
    • Capacity development program for health workers in the field of disability
Budget 6,912,000 USD
The Issue

All persons who are impacted by the crisis face challenges. However, PWDs are amongst the most vulnerable groups and are at particular risk of being neglected and discriminated against. This is especially true in developing countries where they have been in a disadvantaged situation even before any crisis.

In Syria, PWDs have inadequate access to basic needs (food, water, shelter, health provisions, etc.) resulting in higher rates of poverty, lower educational attainment, inequitable health outcomes in addition to social exclusion and unemployment.

During armed conflicts the rate of impairment and disability exponentially increase. For every case of a person dying from armed conflict there are, on average, 3-5 cases of injuries2. The latest documented death toll of the Syrian crisis was 190,0003, with an estimated number of injured people totaling somewhere between 570,000 and 1,000,000 cases. So far, according to the Syria humanitarian needs overview (2015), major disability issues are observed in areas experiencing severe armed conflicts such as in Ar-Raqqa, Aleppo, Homs, Hama, Deir-ez-Zor and rural Damascus.

Based on an evaluation of the situation of PWDs in Syria, using the available data collected through field staff, local partners, and official reports from national authorities, we have identified the following main issues:

  • According to the Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA) records, 80,529 persons are officially registered as physically disabled. The MoSA registration system is not inclusive of all cases of PWDs due to, in part, to the invisibility and accessibility of this population.
  • The absence of inclusive policies and actions directed towards PWDs is well-documented. Scattered interventions that deal with the needs of PWDs have been implemented throughout the country; however, these interventions lack appropriate pre-assessment, planning and professional capacities. They also rarely use systems that utilize comprehensive approaches.
  • There are shortages in quantity and quality of services. Physical rehabilitation centers, Prosthetic & Orthotic centers and other related services that empower PWDs (i.e. Vocational training, educational institutes, Psychosocial support centers, etc.) were not meeting citizens' needs even before the crisis. The deterioration in infrastructure has also taken its toll on these services. Moreover the capacity of qualified skilled personnel to work with the disabled is also lacking.
  • Understanding the link between disability, poverty, and the positive impact of supporting this significant portion of society on social development stream justifies the efforts and resources necessary to support and empower PWDs. This project responds to these issues through a comprehensive programme addressing the need and priorities of PWDs.

Strategy

The project intends to build resilience among persons with disabilities to help accelerate their emotional recovery and to help restore their disrupted livelihoods. The project will also strengthen support systems for people with disabilities by:

  • Including persons with disabilities in all areas of humanitarian response and development with provision of disability rehabilitation services to improve quality of life and the provision of socio economic support of PWDs
  • Encourage advocates for PWDs in the private sector and in NGOs and partner organizations in order to ensure that high service levels and positive attitudes towards people with disabilities continue post-crises
  • Develop capacity of service providers to address the needs of people with disabilities
Partnership Framework

The project will be implemented in close partnership and cooperation with i) local entities; ii) NGOs/CBOs; iii) the private sector; iv) UN agencies, v) donors, and vi) target groups and affected populations. This will promote a wider engagement of all concerned stakeholders in: identifying needs, planning, decision-making, consultation, community mobilization, resource mobilization, implementation, monitoring, feedback and supervision.

In addition, coordination and synergy will be sought with bilateral and multilateral partners (donors, international NGOs, UN partners), through existing and appropriate coordination mechanisms. This will align with their respective comparative advantages and technical expertise. Moreover, the project will seek to harmonize practices (project selection, priority interventions wages, etc.) and to consider knowledge management and information sharing with all partners will be considered involving the beneficiaries/target groups as well.

Activities
  • Mainstream disability issues in all areas of early recovery and livelihoods response
  • Provide disability-related health care and rehabilitation services to PWDs to reach their maximum health and functional potential
  • Develop the capacity of active health/social workers in the field of disabilities such as occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and prosthetic technicians
  • Provide livelihoods support for PWDs
  • Revive two "workshops" where persons with disabilities can work in a supervised setting manufacturing shoes
Impact
  • The major benefit of successful project implementation will be to help support neglected and excluded PWDs to cope with and recover from trauma. Given the increasing number of persons suffering from disabilities caused by war and accidents, this project will have a tangible and immediate impact by increasing basic rehabilitative equipment, provision of prosthetic and orthotic devices, and supporting livelihoods.
  • The project will have a more sustainable impact by developing the capacity of local institutions through a combination of short- and long-term capacity programmes. The main areas targeted are: physical rehabilitation skills such as Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in addition to urgent needs in prosthetic technology capacity development.
  • By the end of 2015, the project will reach 5,000 persons with disability who will receive disability aid. Additionally, 10,000 persons with disabilities will benefit from rehabilitation sessions/services and 2,000 PWDs will benefit from livelihoods support. Of those receiving services 6,000 are women; and special attention is given to the different needs of men and women. The project will also help 500 Health workers in the field of disability build their capacity to better deliver services.
  • 2. Supporting people with disabilities in emergencies [Source]

    3. WHO and health partners responding to the Syrian Arab Republic heath tragedy [Source]

    SPr3
    Rehabilitation of basic and social infrastructure

    The Project

    UNDP is working with local NGOs and communities to help rehabilitate basic services and recover from the crisis. It strengthens the electric, education, sanitation and healthcare systems. It also helps internally displaced persons cope financially by providing emergency employment and by improving access to basic health and educational services. In the long-term it will promote the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar and biogas) as Syria transforms itself.

    Budget 14,450,400 USD
    The Issue

    Based on the 2015 humanitarian needs overview, basic and social infrastructure systems (i.e. electricity, education, sanitation, healthcare, etc.) have been partially damaged or destroyed or over-stretched due to the crisis.

    • Syria's electricity infrastructure is severely damaged and a lack of fuel has caused insufficient and unstable electricity supply. This has had critical impact across all sectors and poses serious threats to human security. Renewable energy sources, particularly water heating and street lighting, are paramount to improve the living conditions of the affected population
    • Education is teetering. For example, by end of 2013, more than one half of all school age children (51.8%) no longer attended school. This reached above 90% in Ar-Raqqa and Aleppo and 68% in Rural Damascus. Also by the end of 2013, 4,000 schools were out of service because they were destroyed, damaged or housing IDPs
    • The healthcare system is compromised by the damage to medical facilities, the flight of healthcare professionals, the death and injury of medical staff, and the collapse of the pharmaceutical industry. Some 61 of 91 public hospitals were damaged with almost half (45%) out of service, while 53 private hospitals were also affected
    Strategy

    The strategy is to work with local partners to assess necessary rubble removal, basic repairs, and infrastructure rehabilitation. UNDP and partners then assess the skills of internally displaced persons and local organizations that can help with the rehabilitation. By building partnerships and understanding local needs, the project creates an infrastructure for solid recovery from the crisis.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP in cooperation with local NGO and private-sector partners provided 5,921 emergency employment opportunities for the restoration of basic services, of which 5,791 persons were employed in the area of solid waste management and 130 persons were employed for infrastructure rehabilitation activities. This benefitted 29,605 individuals including dependent family members, employing 900 women and 234 persons with disability.

    Activities

    UNDP, together with local partners, has developed, planned, and implemented a strategy for infrastructure rehabilitation in each local area.

    Water

    • Rehabilitation of potable water networks
    • Provision of potable water in some specific neighborhoods and shelters
    • Rehabilitation and drilling of water wells in areas where the water network is not functioning

    Energy

    • Rehabilitation of electrical supply for plants and networks
    • Utilization of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass in schools and collective shelters or hospitals and public buildings

    Waste

    • Treatment of sewage water and wastewater from some industrial zones that fulfill environmental requirements to be used in irrigation for agricultural production
    • Harvesting rainwater and separating it from the sewage network to be used for irrigation and agricultural production

    Schools and health

    • Rehabilitation of public health centers, schools and culture centers to enhance resilience of communities in affected areas
    Impact

    UNDP in cooperation with local NGO and private-sector partners provided 14,013 emergency employment opportunities for the restoration of basic services. This benefitted 70,065 individuals including dependent family members, employing 1,064 women and 234 persons with disabilities. This helped internally displaced persons meet their basic survival needs and build their skills for future employment.

    The project creates safer access to basic services such as water supply, sanitation, and renewable energy facilities, in parallel with supporting recovery of social services such as education and health facilities. This has helped to accelerate the return of internally displaced persons to their hometowns.

    SPr4
    Restoration of disrupted livelihoods of the affected population including female-headed households through the provision of micro grants, tools, assets and vocational training

    The Project

    The project helps individuals with disrupted livelihoods by:

    • Strengthening individuals' coping mechanisms
    • Reviving markets by injecting cash into the local economy
    • Restoring micro -and small- businesses, availing emergency economic relief to economically vulnerable populations through grants
    • Providing asset replacement through business start-up kits

    Female-headed households are the primary group who benefit from this project to address their immediate survival needs in a sustainable way. This group was chosen because an increased number of female-headed households was observed in shelters and host communities. The project:

    • Empowers women by helping them start or revive their businesses
    • Provides vocational training and emergency employment opportunities in areas of their expertise
    • Offers micro-grants that enable women-owned businesses

    This will help women and others to generate quick earnings to support their families and build their capacity for the future. Women in both IDP and host communities will benefit from rapid cash-for-work schemes in small businesses such as manufacturing (i.e. of blankets or other items of clothing) and food processing activities (i.e. farming, livestock). Women will also benefit from start-up kits, tools and asset replacement where applicable. The project will focus aid returnees in female-headed households.

    Budget 24,624,000 USD
    The Issue

    After four years of the crisis, 12.2 million Syrians are in need of humanitarian assistance, 7.6 million are IDPs. The recent report on the Socio-economic Impact of the Crisis prepared by the Syrian Centre for Policy Research (SCPR) in collaboration with UNDP states that four out of five Syrians live in poverty. Moreover, the unemployment rate reached 57% with the collapse of Syrian economic productive sectors. This dramatic collapse in human development has been accompanied by destabilization of security and a dramatic deterioration in equity and equality.

    The Syrian economy experienced massive de-industrialization as a result of business closure and bankruptcy, capital flight, looting and destruction. As the formal economy has imploded, there has been a growth in informality, rent-seeking activities, criminal enterprise and economies of violence that will plague post-conflict economic regulation, reform, equity and development.

    The dire economic situation, coupled with constant displacement and high levels of poverty, have a negative impact on the most vulnerable population groups: vulnerable youth, disabled people, and female-headed households. These groups are increasingly marginalized in the crisis. For example, Syrian female-headed households have increased dramatically and because of cultural norms have limited access to income.

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the project is to strengthen the resilience of women and those in other vulnerable groups to cope with the effects of the crisis and help them rebuild their lives.

    The project takes an area-based approach where UNDP field teams and partners work in targeted geographic areas to:

    • Understand the needs of women and other vulnerable groups in that area
    • Tailor specific programs and activities that help them meet basic needs in the short term and create income in the medium term
    • Establish local committees and develop clear criteria for participation to ensure transparency
    • Coordinate with local and international partners to prioritize interventions and find ways to enhance impact
    Partnership Framework

    The project is implemented in close partnership, collaborating with local entities, NGOs/CBOs, local businesses, UN agencies, donors, and target groups and affected populations. This will promote a wider engagement of all concerned stakeholders in identification of needs, planning, decision-making, consultation, community mobilization, resource mobilization, implementation, monitoring, feedback and supervision. As the project progresses, knowledge management and information sharing with all partners will be considered, involving the beneficiaries as well.

    Activities

    Conduct relevant quick assessments to:

    • Identify beneficiaries according to vulnerability criteria
    • Identify needs per household or family (depending if in shelters or hosted at relatives or renting houses or returnee)
    • Identify potential recipients of grants, vocational training, employment and income generating activities
    • Assess their capacities and skills and provide identified support

    Design and implement employment and income generating programmes as well as vocational training based on identified needs and capacities, which will involve:

    • Finalizing agreement with relevant partners in addition to local actors
    • Procuring and replace tools and assets based on identified needs and capacities
    • Replacing damaged and lost tools for people managing small-scale businesses
    • Providing necessary materials for emergency income generating activities based on identified needs
    • Providing cash for work for people employed in available production sectors (as per their capacities and skills)
    Impact

    In the first phase, jobs and income generation opportunities were provided for 1,046 women-headed households in Al- Hasakeh (Qamishli), Hama (Salamieh) and Tartous benefiting 3,399 persons including dependent family members.

    The second phase will include 19,200 individuals including 9,400 female-headed households and 9,800 men (including person with disabilities and vulnerable youth). They will benefit from:

    • Grants: 3,500 recipients
    • Vocational training: 3,500 recipients
    • Small-business generation: 10,000 recipients
    • Tools and asset replacement: 6,400 recipients

    The livelihoods support includes the revival of disrupted businesses; tailored vocational training matching emerging market needs; and providing essential tools and lost assets which directly contribute to the generation of income.

    The restoration of businesses, and provision of productive tools, as well as vocational training contributes to longer-term sustainable benefits for individuals and their communities. It helps them transform from passively receiving support to actively producing income and livelihoods in a dignified way. The resulting businesses will create employment and help restore local markets.

    Additional benefits include:

    • Preserving the traditional heritage and knowledge of local crafts and transmission of this expertise to the new generation through on-the-job training
    • Engaging youth to discourage them from resorting to negative coping mechanisms
    • Empowering the increasing number of females heading their households.
    • Allow women and men to provide health and education services to their children, once they are able to afford it; thus enhancing the standard of their living and keeping their children away from negative practices

    Finally, implementation of the project through local partners and committees will enhance the capacities of local actors, building their ability to strengthen livelihoods and take the lead on reviving their communities.

    SPr5
    Capacity development of NGOs, CBOs and local actors in the field of early recovery and livelihoods: Promoting social cohesion and reconciliation through youth-led community based activities

    The Project

    This is a two-part project that addresses high-priority early recovery issues. Part I strengthens community partner organizations (NGOs/CBOs) who are delivering services in Syria in order to build capacity for effective management. The second part addresses the urgent situation with youth who have faced traumatic experiences and who are at risk of being recruited to engage in armed conflict.

    Our capacity-building programme for partner organizations includes strengthening internal management skills, assessment skills (to identify emerging issues more quickly and accurately), project management (including planning, implementation and monitoring) and collaboration skills to work more effectively in a multi-stakeholder environment with international organizations and local communities. In the medium term, the capacity building programme will support coherent and coordinated service delivery, increase effectiveness and reduce costs.

    To address vulnerable youth, we have created an innovative programme to help recover from the trauma they've experienced and strengthen their self-esteem and sense of support and inclusion in the community. The programme identifies and mobilizes at-risk youth, provides psycho-social support from health professionals and engages them in participative community-based activities (including drama therapy, sports, social activities, etc.). The programme takes an integrated approach to best meet the needs of at-risk youth.

    Budget 2,310,120 USD
    The Issue

    The humanitarian situation in Syria continues to deteriorate at a rapid pace since the beginning of the crisis in March 2011. Based on the Human Needs Overview, The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) estimates that 12.2 million Syrians now require humanitarian assistance, including more than 7.6 million displaced. The dynamic nature of the conflict and its acceleration in several governorates is putting a huge burden on the local actors responding to the emerging and increasing needs of the affected population. The early recovery team has identified two high-priority issues: strengthening partner organizations who are delivering recovery services and supporting vulnerable youth who are at risk of being recruited into armed conflict.

    Strengthening NGOs and CBOs

    Among those organizations delivering recovery services, are the local NGOs and CBOs that have demonstrated a high sense of responsibility and have taken immediate action to address local needs, ensuring access to basic commodities such as food and non-food items (blankets, buckets, soap). Syrian NGOs play a vital role in connecting humanitarian actors with affected communities, establishing the necessary delivery channels, mobilizing volunteers, and developing solutions that address the persisting needs of affected people.

    As we work with NGOs in Syria, (historically focused on charity and philanthropic approaches), we recognize their challenges, taking a more engaged role in project management, early recovery and livelihoods generation. Challenges include lack of specialized technical capacity, weak internal management and structures, limited capacity for executing large-scale projects, difficult legal environment, and complex operational and security contexts. We're helping these NGOs improve management skills, strengthen capacity to cooperate with one another, and enhance ability to actively engage with local communities in planning and implementing interventions.

    Social Cohesion and Reconciliation

    Syria was known for its unique social cohesion and high level of tolerance among its inhabitants who have different religious affiliations. The dramatic effects of the crisis have undermined social harmony. Exposure to violence is contributing to the breakdown of the social system; and, according to the humanitarian needs overview, there is an increase in the number of people seeking assistance and psychosocial support because of rising violence. This is raising the alarm for further deterioration of the social cohesion in the society.

    Unemployed youth and youth not attending school are becoming involved in the armed conflict. Youth require engagement in constructive, community-based activities to help them feel included and create a positive, social environment (thwarting their recruitment into armed conflict).

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the project is twofold:

    • To strengthen the planning, internal management and project implementation and monitoring capacities of NGOs/CBOs
    • To engage youth in constructive, community-based activities to help them feel included and create a positive, cohesive social environment
    • To address reconciliation needs of affected youth through psychosocial support and involvement in community-based activities and drama therapy in target governorates
    Partnership Framework

    The project will be implemented in close cooperation with national and local partners. Local authorities include municipal councils, technical directorates in target governorates and mayors, NGOs and CBOs (in particular for community mobilization, participatory monitoring, implementation, evaluation, knowledge transfer, etc.). Partnerships with other UN agencies will be enhanced to ensure complementarity and achieve the ultimate benefit of the programme.

    Activities

    Empower NGOs, CBOs and local level working groups and build their capacity to engage in emergency response and reconciliation efforts by:

    • Understanding the capacity needs of local organizations, based on their development strategy
    • Designing and implement a capacity building programme
    • Piloting programme in selected areas
    • Implementing at the national level, in areas of highest need

    Mobilize youth in difficult areas and engage them in a social cohesion programme that includes participatory community activities by:

    • Conducting a quick assessment of the potential entry points for youth led community based activities that involves:
      • Identifying local partners (NGOs, CBOs)
      • Conducting field visits, meet affected youth and assess the needs and available environment
      • Selecting target neighborhoods and shelters to be supported based on assessment
      • Identifying beneficiaries based on assessment
    • Implementing a youth-led social cohesion programme through community based activities that:
      • Designed based on results of the assessment and potential entry points
      • Incorporates other arts and community activities as necessary (i.e. music, food, sport, etc.)
      • Involves the training of trainers and building of capacity amongst local partners
      • Is piloted and amended based on feedback
    Impact

    The NGO/CBO capacity development programme will strengthen implementation capacities, thus contributing directly to better planning, project management and monitoring of interventions. It will take the work of the NGOs/CBOs to another strategic level that will positively impact the local response to the crisis and build the resilience of the affected population.

    The youth activities will address the social impact of the crisis on the most vulnerable youth and will rebuild the social structure of the community, preparing the affected population for a participatory approach towards early recovery. About 50,000 youth (boys and girls) will engage in social community-based activities. To do so, UNDP will partner with 150 NGOs/CBOs in the targeted areas.

    End of this country's projects. Select another?

    Lebanon

    Select a programme:

    • LPr1Mitigating the impact of the Syrian crisis on Lebanon: Facilitating policy dialogues between government institutions, local authorities, political parties and civil society organizations for more integrated national policies and response plans
    • LPr2Supporting health and social services at the local level
    • LPr3National Information Management and Analysis Support (IMAS) for aid coordination and effectiveness
    • LPr4Peacebuilding in Lebanon: Promoting social cohesion through change agents and rule of law
    • LPr5Strengthening disaster risk management capacities with special focus on refugee-hosting, high-risk municipalities
    • LPr6Supporting livelihoods and local economic development in host communities
    • LPr7Improving living conditions in Palestinian gathering host communities: Towards more comprehensive and sustainable solutions
    • LPr8Supporting basic services delivery in communities most affected by the Syria crisis

    LPr1
    Mitigating the impact of the Syrian crisis on Lebanon: Facilitating policy dialogues between government institutions, local authorities, political parties and civil society organizations for more integrated national policies and response plans

    The Project

    This project aims to build consensus among stakeholders, including government representatives, local authorities, political groups, and civil society organizations on the formulation and implementation of integrated national policies to alleviate the impact of Syrian crisis on Lebanon. It does this by facilitating dialogue among concerned stakeholders to work towards political consensus on national priorities and a framework of action. The three dialogue cycles are:

    • A political dialogue series between the main political stakeholders inside relevant ministries, representing the main political parties and decision makers
    • A technical dialogue series between high level socio-economic experts, local authorities, civil society representatives, and UN mandated agencies
    • A wrap up dialogue series to aid in the development of the integrated National Policies and response plans

    The project is called the "Support Office for Consensus Building, Civil Peace, and Constitutional Strengthening II," also known as the Common Space Initiative (CSI), and will be managed by the United Nations Development Programme in Lebanon.

    Budget 400,000 USD
    The Issue

    Disagreement over political positions vis-à-vis the Syrian crisis in addition to the limited readiness and capacities of national institutions has led to an inability of the government of Lebanon to develop and implement national strategies and integrated response plans that respond to critical humanitarian needs and to the longer-term developmental challenges facing the host and the refugee communities.

    Since the outbreak of the crisis, the lack of a consistent response strategy at the government level has been partially compensated by ad hoc policies implemented sporadically on national and local levels. While a multitude of studies and strategies have been offered by the various UN mandated agencies, additional work is needed to draw out issues and create consensus among the many stakeholders involved. To date, the role of the State remains limited to the validation or endorsement of the decisions and strategies of donors and international agencies. The government is coping with the daily situation and has not found ways to recover from the conflict's impact or transform toward a long-term, integrated vision5.

    As a first step toward an integrated response, in December 2014, the government of Lebanon and the UN launched the LCRP 2015-20166, a comprehensive strategic plan developed by Lebanese Ministries, UN agencies, and national and international NGOs. While the LCRP was endorsed by the government, integration of the two-year plan into existing national policies is still unclear. Also, the process of implementation will be managed in the current context characterized by a persisting vacuum in the presidency of the (Lebanese) Republic; the fragility of both the Parliament and the Council of Ministers; and sometimes inefficient institutional and financial sustainability of the Lebanese public administration concerned with the implementation7. Despite these challenges, this project has identified a way forward.

    Strategy

    Through the CSI, UNDP will intensify its support by providing mechanisms and spaces for dialogue to build strong links between all concerned stakeholders and to promote consensus on contested priorities (i.e. policies and response plans) for mitigating the impacts of the crisis. In close consultation with various national stakeholders, the Common Space Initiative will develop a strategy across three main dialogue series.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP will engage a variety of its partners along the various stages of the processes:

    • The Consultation and Research Institute (CRI) will prepare all background studies and technical research needed for the dialogue series
    • Lebanese Political Parties will actively participate in the dialogue series, will ensure knowledge sharing within their political party, and propose a framework of action
    • The Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Education and Higher Education, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Foreign Relations will all actively participate in the dialogue series, providing background knowledge and discussing priorities, needed policies and response plans
    • Local authorities will actively participate in the dialogue series and provide knowledge and expertise from local practices and realities
    • UNHCR, The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), and the World Bank will actively participate in the dialogue series and support the dialogue processes with their perspective, resources and expertise. They will also facilitate better connections with the Lebanese Government and the relevant mandated institutions
    • Civil Society organizations and Independent experts will actively participate in the dialogue series and will provide input, experience, and resources as they help validate the various proposals put forward
    Activities

    The Common Space Initiative will convene a dialogue series in three steps to help forge consensus.

    A high-level political dialogue series with the main political stakeholders and decision makers inside relevant ministries will provide a common space for key issues to be raised and discussed. This first dialogue cycle will bring together national stakeholders representing the main political parties and decision makers. Topics will include:

    • Joint assessment of the crisis' facets
    • Development of a common understanding of the impact of the crisis on the country's socio-economic and political dialogue frameworks
    • Agreement on national priorities and a framework
    • Proposal of mitigation measures and strategies to engage in dialogue and consensus building processes
    • Development of a response plan and policy formation

    A Technical dialogue series between experts, including high level socio-economic experts, local authorities, civil society representatives, and UN mandated agencies will bring in local perspectives and details on how policies will be translated into action. The dialogue between the various experts will run in parallel to the political dialogue and aims at providing the necessary technical support to the political dialogue including:

    • Validation of facts and figures
    • Provision of necessary knowledge resources
    • Building understanding on specific technical issues
    • Providing options for the translation of agreed policies

    A wrap-up dialogue series will finalize key issues and produce integrated national policies and response plans. Based on the framework reached in the political dialogue and supported by the technical dialogue, the final dialogue cycle will unite political stakeholders and decision makers together with the experts to focus on the translation of agreed upon frameworks into integrated national policies and response plans.

    A facilitation team comprised of political scientists, socio-economic experts, process design specialists and facilitators will support the dialogue series. The facilitation team will be responsible to:

    • Map all studies and strategies specific to the Syrian impact on Lebanon
    • Analyze available resources and develop an analytical framework including: classification of studies, compilation of findings, comparative analysis of proposed scenarios, gap analysis of data to enhance informed dialogue mechanisms
    • Develop a facilitation strategy and roadmap for the dialogue series in close coordination with the concerned stakeholders
    • Facilitate all dialogue series
    • Sustain the use of the dialogue process with concerned stakeholders
    • Support stakeholders with knowledge production, dissemination, and roadmap planning, and
    • Follow up on all dialogue results
    • Six years of UNDP experience has provided a foundation upon which the CSI, including established relationships across the political spectrum, will be strengthened to support to the government institution and past achievements. Past UNDP and CSI initiatives include: The Administrative Decentralization Draft Law, the Vision for the Reactivation of the Economic and Social Council of Lebanon, the Common Vision for the Lebanese Palestinian relations, and others.

    Impact

    The project will forge consensus on frameworks of action and long term integrated national policies. Moreover, response plans will be built among the concerned stakeholders. In the process, the project will:

    • Increase knowledge about the short and long term impacts of the crisis as information is shared among government institutions, political parties, local authorities, experts and civil society
    • Develop a common understanding of national challenges, opportunities and priorities among the concerned stakeholders to enhance dialogue and consensus building processes
    • Integrate agreed upon national policies and response plans within the action plans of mandated ministries and local level institutions, and
    • Engage in conflict resolution mechanisms for a more resilient political system in the long term

    5. Consultation and Research Institute, 2015, Strategies of response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon, Common Space Initiative.

    6. Government of Lebanon and the United Nations, 2015, Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2015-16, Beirut: GOL/UN. [Source]

    7. Consultation and Research Institute, 2015, Strategies of response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon, Common Space Initiative.

    LPr2
    Supporting health and social services at the local level

    The Project

    This project aims to strengthen integrated health and social services in selected municipalities targeting the most vulnerable communities. It is part of the LCRP priority to strengthen the capacity of national and local delivery systems to expand access to and quality of basic public services. The project will strengthen capacity of:

    • Municipalities
    • Social development centres
    • Primary health care centres, and
    • Public schools delivering integrated services

    In addition to strengthening services, the project will also decrease tensions and increase social cohesion because of improved access to services.

    Budget 6,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    The large influx of Syrians across Lebanon has directly affected the public service sectors at the national scale. The surge in demand for health and social services has exceeded the capacity to meet it, raising municipal costs. Social and health services are a priority need in vulnerable communities impacted by the crisis. A deeper understanding of these needs have been identified through a participatory, conflict-sensitive methodology (Maps of Risks and Resources). To date needs have been assessed in 150 communities out of the 242 most vulnerable locations in the country.

    In 2013, UNDP jointly with the MoSA8, launched the "Lebanese Host Communities Support Project" (LHSP) as a comprehensive, coordinated and durable multi-sectorial response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis and its implications on the country. The Project seeks to help increase stability, specifically in the areas affected by the Syrian crisis, through improving livelihood and service provision in a conflict sensitive manner, strengthening local and national capacities to the response.

    As part of the Host Communities Support Project, UNDP, in collaboration with four ministries, launched the "Support to Integrated Service Provision at the local level" in 2014. Participating ministries include the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), the Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA), the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MEHE) and the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities (MoIM). The aim of the initiative is to develop integrated social and health plans and services at the local level coordinated with municipalities.

    Strategy

    The objective of the project is to strengthen integrated health and social services in the most vulnerable communities by a robust assessment of needs in areas of vulnerability, a clear understanding of government policy, and a dialogue between ministries and local working groups.

    The sustainability of this strategy is based on strengthening the dialogue among line ministries and local stakeholders, taking into consideration the input coming from the regional level and the endorsement by the line ministries of the local plans for social and health services.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has a strong partnership with the Lebanese authorities at both national and local level as well as civil society organisations, and others. UNDP is known for its ability to bring all sectors of a community together in a participatory approach to identify needs and to address community tensions.

    Partners are engaged in various government working groups such as the Health and Education sector working groups and the Technical Committee of the Inter-Ministerial agreement and the local working groups. UNDP also works with municipalities to help integrated social and health services interventions at local and national level.

    Activities

    In each phase of the project, 29 municipalities are selected from the pilot phase of the initiative. In this framework, 72 public schools, 15 Social Development Centres (SDCs) and 15 Public Health Care Centres (PHCCs) are also targeted.

    Subsequently, the Inter-Ministerial Initiative's Technical committee studies these assessments. Afterwards, the guidelines of the ministries are discussed at the local level with representatives of local stakeholders, such as PHCCs of the MoPH network, Social Development Centres of MoSA, and public schools of MEHE. The priorities for interventions are identified by the representatives of the local working group based on a mechanism developed by the initiative. The interventions are divided in two main categories:

    • Improving infrastructure through rehabilitation and equipment
    • Improving services and introducing an integrated approach in order to optimize resources

    Once there is agreement, the interventions are carried out.

    Impact

    The primary impact of the project is a reduction in tension between refugees and host communities in the targeted areas. This is achieved by improved access and quality of social and health services in the targeted municipalities that are significantly affected by the influx of refugees.

    The Lebanese Host Communities Support Project has implemented over 140 emergency projects across different sectors, including health, education, livelihood, water and waste management. These interventions have benefitted hundreds of thousands of people including Syrian refugees in the most vulnerable 100 out of 242 communities. In the last year, the project has benefitted approximately 900,000 people (56% Lebanese and 44% Syrian registered refugees).

    The expected impact in 2015 will come from strengthening the capacity of the municipalities, social development centres, primary health care centres and public schools delivering integrated social and health services.

    8. The Ministry of Social Affairs lead the institutional coordination of the LCRP for the Government of Lebanon.

    LPr3
    National Information Management and Analysis Support (IMAS) for aid coordination and effectiveness

    The Project

    The overall objective of the proposed Information Management and Analysis Support (IMAS) initiative is to enhance the capacity of key government actors to better collaborate across a complex network of initiatives with international and local organisations and to improve the stabilization and resilience information available. The project will:

  • Create a national stabilization and resilience IMAS system
  • Support national integrated strategic analysis and prioritization for stabilization and resilience programming, and
  • Integrate information and analysis, particularly about violence/security tracking and conflict risk analysis from the Information and Knowledge Management Unit of the UNDP Resident Coordinator Office (RCO) into the IMAS information, analysis and toolkits for stabilization & resilience programming
  • The project will do this by mapping context-specific, situational, cross-sectorial, multi-actor, stabilization and resilience (S&R) strategic analysis and prioritization. This will also include integrated programming and effective coordination for the government, UN agencies, (I)NGOs and donors in Lebanon, through the provision of information management and analysis-support tools, and the set-up of a national IMAS team.

    Budget 2,233,608 USD
    The Issue

    The sheer scope of the humanitarian and developmental interventions carried out by UN agencies, the World Bank, bi-laterals, the national governments and international and national NGOs, underscores the necessity of a comprehensive system to help coordinate the multiplicity of assistance modalities. An information system is needed to manage projects, activities, expenditures, aid flows and funding mechanisms carried out by all stakeholders in order to optimize resources.

    A prerequisite for the Government of Lebanon, as well as the UN and the international community actors in Lebanon, is to have a comprehensive mapping of interventions. This will allow access to the multiple information sources and analysis that can effectively support cross-sectorial, multi-actor, conflict-sensitive strategic programming. This is particularly needed in the context of the protracted crisis, where targets, goals and assumptions are subject to fluid change. The project will increase the capacity of partners to operate effectively in highly unstable environments, with greater flexibility in developing operational and programmatic responses that can better articulate critical needs with local strengths and opportunities, through an increased situational awareness, both individually and collectively.

    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to enhance the information base for all concerned actors in S&R analysis, planning and programming through standardized, geo-referenced (when possible) compilation of available data, accessible through an on-line interactive S&R-focused Geographic information system (GIS) Atlas.

    Key strategies are:

    • To share information among all partners and to assure sustainable tracking of international aid-supported projects and activities in Lebanon in order to create national system(s) of social tensions and risk mapping (including critical violence incident tracking)
    • To support municipal-level risk and needs mapping as well as input a national integrated resilience and stabilization coordination mechanism. Finally, the project will build the capacity of key government staff in information management and S&R analysis, planning and programming
    Partnership Framework

    The Council of Development and Reconstruction (CDR) is designated as the National Implementing Agency for this project with participation of the Office of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (PCM), MoSA and MoIM. The Implementing Agency is accountable to UNDP for all resources allocated for the project.

    A Project Board will be established to provide technical support, share relevant information, and review progress. The Project Board will be comprised of:

    • An executive: a representative of UNDP providing in particular technical guidance to the project and secretariat services
    • A senior supplier: representative of CDR Board
    • Senior beneficiaries: representatives from CDR administration, as well as MoSA, MoIM and the project management office (PMO). Donors and other government agencies will also be involved
    Activities

    Creation of a National Stabilization and Resilience Information Management and Analysis Support (IMAS) system

    • In order to respond to the need for a nationally-led, integrated stabilization/resilience analysis and planning process in Lebanon, a national IMAS system will be put in place within and among the key Government aid management and planning agencies (CDR, MoSA, PMO and MoIM)
    • This IMAS will begin by mapping existing data, from UN/NGO, Government and private sector sources, developing a metadata tracking tool and creating a Lebanon Digital Atlas with all geo-referenced datasets, which can be updated regularly
    • A second component of the IMAS system will be the roll-out of a dynamically updated aid projects tracking tool, integrated with the Lebanon Digital Atlas built on the existing aid coordination tracking system to re-start effective aid tracking and coordination
    • A third component of the IMAS system will be an on-line Aid Coordination Information Portal, which will provide interactive access to the S&R Lebanon Digital Atlas and its' related Data and Map Resource Center, including a national Aid Flows Tracking report for the National Aid Coordination Portal Dashboard</li>
    • This portal will ideally be linked with the existing UNHCR Information Portal, so as to provide an integrated information and analysis resource center for both humanitarian, non-humanitarian, and security and risk partners

    Support national integrated strategic analysis and prioritization for stabilization and resilience programming

    • Building on the information gathering and sharing tools described above, a dynamic system of key social tension/risk mapping and monitoring will be designed, set up and maintained, in order to provide close-to-real-time inputs. This will be overlaid with the security and risk digital atlas in order to prioritize security and risk responses. Further mapping will be incorporated from the Ministry of Social Affairs and UNDP to include stabilization needs of the most vulnerable municipalities. This tension and risk monitoring system will help address critical needs more quickly and effectively

    Integrate information and analysis, particularly about violence/security tracking and conflict risk analysis from the Information and Knowledge Management Unit of the UNDP RCO into the IMAS information, analysis and toolkits for stabilization & resilience programming

    • To support UNDP's role in enhancing security and risk programming within the UN, and its' mandate to help optimize Government technical capacities in critical development issues, an Information and Knowledge Management Unit has been created, bringing together existing resources
    Impact

    By the end of 2015 the national IMAS team will have operationalized the three key components for information management and analysis: the Lebanon Digital Atlas, the MRR mapping and the Lebanon Aid Tracking and Coordination Portal.

    IMAS will dramatically reduce duplication of efforts, increase effectiveness in stabilization initiatives and increase access and accuracy of S&R information. This will improve integrated strategic analysis for interventions, particularly about violence/security tracking and conflict risk analysis.

    LPr4
    Peace building in Lebanon: Promoting social cohesion through change agents and rule of law

    The Project

    This Project will empower change agents and municipal police to reduce tensions and prevent violent conflicts between the Lebanese themselves and Syrian refugees. Key components of the project are to:

  • Develop standard municipal policing procedures and a code of conduct in partnership with relevant stakeholders whether international, national, or local
  • Provide training and material assistance to municipal police in accordance with the newly developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and code of conduct
  • Enhance relations and partnerships between law enforcement authorities and the community including refugees, and
  • Engage the media and youth through schools to promote peace building
  • The project responds to the immediate needs requested by national counterparts at the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, and at the same time, continues the UNDP support to municipalities and leaders at the local level to manage the crisis and reduce tensions. The project targets 100 communities over a period of two years covering the most impacted hosting communities, reinforcing social stability.

    Budget 2,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    Five years into the Syrian crisis, Lebanon is currently facing its biggest challenge post its own civil war. With almost a quarter of its population comprising of refugees, Lebanon is under immense pressure due to the increased demand on infrastructure and public services. These pressures have also been translated in heightened inter and intra-community tensions therefore further stretching the limited abilities of the Lebanese security forces and municipalities to maintain stability in the region. Law enforcement authorities are adapting to a dynamic context where they are required to provide policing for a larger and more diverse population, including refugees.

    The efforts of the national law enforcement authorities, to manage conflicts at the local level has become relatively challenging due to the significant increase in population. In this context, local elected authorities across Lebanon have been at the forefront of managing the implication of the significant increase of population, specifically in terms of basic services provisions, livelihood programmes, humanitarian assistance, and security. The international community has responded by attempting to meet the needs of the humanitarian refugees, and the hosting communities in the area of basic services and livelihoods. However, with little clarity to when the crisis in Syria will reach an end, security in general remains to be a serious component that has to be tackled in order to maintain stability between the Lebanese and Syrians as well as amongst Syrians themselves while catering to the specific needs of the already vulnerable status of the Syrian refugees.

    For the first time in post-war Lebanon, law enforcement has been significantly undertaken by locally elected authorities through their municipal police. To reap the benefits of this devolvement of power special attention needs to be given to the development of a comprehensive locally-driven security strategy that guarantees both the security of the host- and refugee-communities.

    To date, municipal police have not been provided with uniform procedures, resources, or specific training needed for their responsibilities (i.e. addressing the refugee communities). The lack of clarity on the municipal police mandate coupled with the limited guidance from central authorities is resulting in municipalities devising their own mechanisms for law enforcement. In this system, municipal police are the primary respondents to security incidents. The complexity of these devised mechanisms vary from one area to another depending on the size of the municipality, its available resources, and its geographical location.

    Strategy

    UNDP is at the forefront of ensuring a stabilization-oriented response to crisis. UNDP jointly with the MoSA and MoIM have been working together on the Peace Building Project as a comprehensive, coordinated and durable response towards the Syrian Refugee Crisis and its implications on the country. The Project seeks to help increase stability, specifically in the areas affected by the Syrian crisis, through improving and promoting social cohesion and strengthening the capacities of municipalities, municipal police forces, and the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities to manage the crisis.

    The exit strategy of the intervention is based on the increased capacities of the MoIM and stakeholders regarding crisis management and conflict resolution, as a result of the development of local mechanisms for social stability Municipal Social Stability (MSS).

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has a strong partnership with the Lebanese authorities at the national and local levels and this is enhanced by the relationships established with other actors, civil society etc. UNDP is known for its capacity to bring all sectors of a community together in a participatory approach to identify needs and to address community tensions. UNDP is the overall lead on the LCRP with regards to Stabilization as well as leading the Social Stability and Livelihood sectors.

    In its capacity as a national sovereign entity that regulates and manages local authorities and internal security forces, the MoIM will be the main partner that overlooks, executes, and monitors the successful development and implementation of the strategy.

    Activities

    To prevent violent conflicts between the Lebanese themselves and Syrian refugees, the programe will empower change agents and municipal police to reduce tensions by:

    Developing standard municipal policing procedures and a code of conduct in partnership with relevant stakeholders whether international, national, or local

    • Municipal police will be assisted in developing a policing strategy that clarifies their role as first responder, communication with Internal Security Forces (ISF) and other counterparts and understanding the needs of the local community and refugees. As part of this, municipal police will be assisted in developing standard operating procedures to implement the strategy as well as a code of conduct which will set out the legal and ethical standards by which all municipal police must abide. Once endorsed by MoIM, these standard procedures and code of conduct can be disseminated to municipalities throughout the country

    Providing training and material assistance to municipal police in accordance with the newly developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and code of conduct

    • Municipal police will be provided with training related to the standard operating procedures and code of conduct, community policing, preventive and response mechanisms, conflict resolution, mediation, and dealing with trauma. In collaboration with other security sector reform programs, the training will build on modules and best practices developed by the Community Policing Pilot Project in Ras Beirut and can be conducted at the ISF Academy or in the municipalities themselves. Depending on the municipalities' needs, some material assistance will be provided, primarily in the areas of communication, transportation and office equipment

    Enhancing relations and partnerships between law enforcement authorities and the community including refugees

    • Municipal police, ISF, and the local community will be engaged in partnership activities aimed at enhancing communication and interaction between them and improving perceptions of the police. Trainings on joint problem identification and conflict mediation will be provided, after which municipal police and community representatives will develop and implement joint projects aimed at improving the security environment. The first group of union of municipalities and municipalities that will be targeted will be selected according to the number of refugees

    Engaging the media and youth through schools to promote peace building

    • The project will address the gaps in knowledge, attitudes and practices of the students through training and capacity development of educators, school managers and the pupils on peace building and conflict management and will also nurture a culture of joint planning and execution of shared initiatives, including infrastructure improvement in the schools. Similarly, the project will engage journalists for the purpose of creating a space that shows the positives that come out of the crisis on a daily basis. Joint news supplements will be produced with a focus on the impact of the Syrian crisis on Lebanon but with a constructive angle that celebrates the opportunities and success stories that are lived by the Lebanese and Syrians
    Impact

    The expected impact of the project is a reduction of tensions between the refugee population and host communities in the targeted areas. By the end of the project, municipalities and MoIM's capacities to promote social stability and maintain security will be strengthened.

    LPr5
    Solid waste and debris management in crisis time to enhance community resilience and improve living conditions

    The Project

    This project will increase societal resilience against disasters, especially in refugee-hosting high risk cazas (districts) and municipalities through

    • Awareness raising workshops for PCM) staff and leadership about disaster risks facing Lebanon and strategies by which the PCM can address those risks in its development projects
    • Training on disaster risk reduction (DRR); including examples of earthquake, flood and forest fire mitigation and prevention
    • Help the National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS) improve capacities for hazard forecasting, as well as the dissemination of warning information to multiple stakeholders
    • Improve physical and technical as well as emergency preparedness of the municipal governments for disaster responses by supply of necessary equipment, machinery and tools

    The project will help provide faster response in a volatile, disaster event to minimize the high risk of suffering by the most vulnerable, including refugees.

    Budget 2,481,330 USD
    The Issue

    Numerous crises that have hit Lebanon in recent years have provided stakeholders with a greater awareness of disaster risks. The establishment of the Disaster Management Unit at the Prime Minister's office and capacity development activities undertaken by the unit have significantly enhanced stakeholders understanding of a proactive DRR approach. However, the country still has substantive needs with regards to its capacity for disaster risk reduction, which are described below.

    The Institutional Mechanism

    • The lack of a national focal point institution to lead the country in the areas of disaster risk reduction and crisis management is key. Current bodies involved in disaster risk management include The High Relief Committee (HRC) and the National Coordination Committee (NCC). The bodies that exist at the moment are but rootless forums for coordination. They lack institutional foundation to perform the tasks that are required of an effective national entity.
    • Numerous entities are performing a stop gap role; e.g. the DRM Unit, the office of the Secretary General of the HRC and the Advisor to Prime Minister on DRR amongst others, offering temporary solutions without institutional foundation.
    • A national focal point institution is required to perform the tasks of policy making, monitoring the implementation of policies, training, awareness raising, issuance of technical guidelines for application by stakeholders, dissemination of early warnings and the coordination of actual emergency response and recovery after crisis/disaster.

    Disaster Risk Information

    • The disaster risk management project of UNDP has supported the production of risk information products (the digital library, the DesInventor, the national risk profile, the national flood hazard map). However, Lebanon still lacks sufficient risk information that could guide the action of ministries and municipalities towards integration of DRR into their regular development planning (land-use and urban planning, infrastructure development). The CNRS is currently producing a national seismic risk map, which would partially fill the gap of risk information at the national level. In the next stage Lebanon needs to produce local level risk maps for selected high-risk regions and municipalities so that stakeholders could take measures to reduce societal exposure and vulnerability.

    Human Resources

    • All stakeholders have expressed the need for more specialized disaster management training. It appears that in the previous phases more training has been conducted about generic aspects; (e.g. disaster preparedness, and emergency response).

    Physical Capacities for Emergency Response

    • Awareness levels of all key stakeholders have significantly increased, especially concerning emergency response. However, physical and technical capacities remain rather weak in the areas of search and rescue, evacuation, fire-fighting, and medical first aid.
    • Except for the Beirut Fire Brigade Service, the other services lack sufficient machinery, equipment and transportation facilities to provide effective emergency support. In most cases, the available trucks, fire tenders and ambulances are worn out and require repairs or new procurement.
    • The municipalities also lack rescue equipment, fire-fighting equipment (cutters, ropes, ladders, cameras, telescopes) and the IT infrastructure (e.g. satellite radios, computers, scanners, TVs, printers).

    A culture of risk-sensitive development planning

    • Most ministries and municipalities have not started the process of integrating DRR concerns into their regular development planning. Unless the sectorial ministries and the municipalities integrate a disaster risk reduction approach into their regular development work, the reduction of societal vulnerability and enhancement of resilience will not be achievable.
    • A crucial next step is to produce/provide necessary risk information (local risk maps for high risk areas), provide basic orientation to ministries and municipalities about DRR integration and formulate a mechanism to engage them in a continued process for a few years.

    In conclusion, the country suffers from a weak disaster risk management system which includes the lack of an effective policy, a functional institution, an end-to-end early warning system, technical know-how and societal awareness and preparedness.

    Strategy

    UNDP is working closely with the relevant ministries to guarantee that interventions are supported in the framework of national priorities and respective policies: the governance structure of the project is directly linked to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers which ensures consistency in selecting, targeting, and formulation of interventions according to the main national policies.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has a strong partnership with the Lebanese authorities at national and local levels and this is consolidated by the relationships established with other actors and civil society. UNDP is known for its capacity to bring all sectors together in a participatory approach to work collaboratively. For this project, UNDP will work with the Office of the Prime Minister, as the national focal point, and will also maintain its strategic partnerships with the CRNS, Lebanese Red Cross, the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF), Civil Defence, MoIM, and the HRC in order to ensure sound and sustainable interventions that have institutional capacity improvement at the heart of the intervention.

    Activities

    The Project will undertake following activities:

    • An awareness raising workshop for the President's Council of Ministers (PCM) staff and leadership about disaster risk facing Lebanon and strategies by which the PCM can address those risks in its development projects
      • Expose the highest level decision makers (including the Prime Minister, the cabinet Ministers and selected parliamentarians) to best practice of disaster risk management. Organize a study visit to countries that are comparable to the Lebanese system and culture
      • Organize a national conference for parliamentarians, ministers, religious leaders from all denominations of the country and other national opinion makers. The conference will include presentations about disaster risks facing Lebanon and effective national governance systems for disaster risk reduction
    • Training on disaster risk reduction; including examples of earthquake, flood, forest fire mitigation and prevention. This training will involve:
      • Table top exercises held at the PCM to provide hands-on exposure to its leadership and staff concerning integration of DRR into specific upcoming projects
      • A workshop on actions needed to modify the procedures and planning instruments for PCM designed and approved projects, to ensure DRR integration into them
    • In the area of early warning, help the CNRS improve capacities for hazard forecasting, as well as the dissemination of warning information to multiple stakeholders from national, to household to community levels
      • Work with the CNRS to help it acquire important data including satellite imagery, remote sensing, and weather and climate data. The Project will help the CNRS to set up a National Early Warning Committee either under the National Disaster Management Authority if it is established or independently. The multi-sectorial committee will serve as the forum to discuss important warning information and to communicate it to stakeholders
    • Support the following actions at the municipalities level:
      • Improve the physical capacities of municipal governments for disaster response by supply of necessary equipment, machinery and tools. This will include provision of ambulances, fire fighting vehicles, search and rescue equipment, IT equipment and softwares for emergency response management (e.g. resource management databases)
      • Increase the technical capacities of municipal governments by providing training on disaster risk reduction and conducting simulations on emergency response
      • Improve community preparedness through awareness-raising, drills, and educational activities at the schools
    Impact

    National governance for disaster risk reduction will be improved through establishment of institutional mechanisms, instruments and technical capacities. This will increase stakeholders' capability to undertake risk-sensitive development planning based upon advance risk information systems.

    In this phase, the Project will support the National Council for Scientific Research to produce risk maps for five (5) high risk cazas (districts), especially those which are hosting Syrian refugees, where due to the inundation of large number of refugees, the risks of environmental degradation and social conflicts have intensified.

    Being the most vulnerable segment, refugees are also at high risk of suffering in case of a future natural disaster event. Therefore, the production of disaster risk maps will help the municipal authorities and national departments to plan action for increasing resilience of the high-risk refugee hosting areas.

    LPr6
    Supporting livelihoods and local economic development in host communities

    The Project

    This project seeks to address the challenges faced by Lebanon, in light of the Syrian crisis, in relation to the deteriorating economic conditions in the country and the increasing unemployment rates, poverty levels and consequently social instability, particularly in the most vulnerable host communities. This will be tackled through economic stabilization and recovery initiatives, including support to start-ups, small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs) and cooperatives, valorization of value chains, improving workforce employability as well as the implementation of rapid employment schemes, with the dual benefit of providing immediate financial contributions to vulnerable beneficiaries while supporting local economic development needs aggravated by the Syrian crisis.

    Key aspects of the project include:

    • Vulnerable persons, in particular women and youth, affected by the Syria crisis benefit from rapid employment schemes based on community priorities, including agricultural and infrastructure development, health and environment awareness raising and disaster risk reduction initiatives
    • Improved workforce employability of vulnerable persons
    • Improved capacity of the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) sector to create jobs

    Ultimately, the project will increase stability and social cohesion and help create a path forward for financial stability among the most vulnerable.

    Budget 400,000 USD
    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to help vulnerable groups, especially Lebanese women and youth, and MSMEs, to cope with and recover from the economic shock through stabilizing and improving income and revenue.

    UNDP Lebanon's livelihoods approach identifies three specific intervention tracks: stabilized livelihoods; local economic recovery for medium to long-term employment, income generation and reintegration; and sustainable employment and inclusive economic growth.

    The project will build on previous livelihoods work, including:

    • A Cash For Work initiatives working on reforestation and forest management implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture
    • Cash for Work initiative that supports Community promoters implemented in partnership with UNFPA
    • Employability of young people is supported via paid internships and skills development programmes, based on demand
    • The establishment of Local Economic Development Agencies (LEDAs) in four different locations
    • Identification, planning and construction of productive rural infrastructure such as markets, agricultural roads, and irrigation canals
    • Support to existing and start up of small and medium enterprises
    The Issue

    The economic and social impact of the crisis on Lebanon reached new heights in 2014. By November, Lebanon had received more than 1.5 million individuals fleeing the conflict in Syria, including 1.2 million Syrians registered with UNHCR as refugees by the end of 2014, resulting in an increase of 30 % of the overall population of Lebanon.

    Livelihoods in Lebanon have been severely impacted by the demographic and economic shocks as a consequence of the Syrian conflict. Due to the dependence on imports and services, economic productivity in Lebanon is highly influenced by regional and international shocks. Therefore the Syrian crisis has had a severe impact on the Lebanese economy at all levels, negatively affecting the key sectors such as trade, tourism and hospitality, real estate, energy and construction. This can be attributed to plummeting investors' and consumers' confidence due to uncertainty about the security situation, as well as the closure of strategic export/import routes for Lebanese products to Syria and the Gulf countries.

    Agriculture, the third most important sector in Lebanon is the main sector of livelihoods in rural areas. The sector contributes nearly 7% to GDP and employs around 15% of the active population. The agriculture sector has experienced a growth of 7.7 % in the last 7 years. However, it has experienced a significant decrease in growth rate since 2010 caused by the Syrian crisis as the exports of agriculture products through the Syrian border decreased by 50% in 2010 and 35% in 2013. Long-standing economic inequalities are consequently becoming more widespread, affecting social relationships and wellbeing, and ultimately threatening the country's stability.

    Lebanon's private sector is still largely unsupported, with local economies heavily dependent on remittances (16% of GDP or US$7.6 billion in 2014). The large manufacturing enterprises, which struggle to maintain output, and MSME are increasingly unable to cope with the high cost of energy and operations, and the disruption of exports. In Lebanon, over 90% of enterprises currently active in the economy can be categorized as SMEs. However, the country faces several challenges that impede the potential benefits of SMEs; Lebanon often has insufficient support across the different stages of enterprise evolution and dimensions of the SME ecosystem.

    The Lebanon Roadmap for Priority Interventions for Stabilization from the Syrian Conflict, issued by the Government of Lebanon in October 2013, prioritizes employment and job creation, with a strategic focus on youth employment and support to Lebanon's MSMEs ecosystem. This includes targeted financial and non-financial services (such as technical vocational training) to MSMEs in key sectors most affected by the impact of the Syrian crisis.

    Within the LCRP the strategy of the livelihoods sector aims to contribute to stabilization through interventions that promote permanent job creation for Lebanese and temporary rapid income generating activities for refugees from Syria and Palestinians. Although the legal framework restricts the work of refugees the law does allow for Syrian nationals to work in certain occupations within the field of agriculture, construction and cleaning. The Support to Livelihoods and Local Economic Development in Host Communities programme pivots around the LCRP livelihood sector strategy and aims to support the priorities set by ministries and other national institutions.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has established long-standing partnerships with a range of Ministries such as MoSA; MoIM; (MoE); Water and Energy as well as with the Office of the Prime Minister and the Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR). Those strong partnerships are of particular strategic importance to achieve results in the current complex and sensitive context of the country.

    UNDP has a proven track record of working with local authorities in all parts of Lebanon to address community needs in a conflict sensitive manner. This can facilitate local development, peace building and social stability. Moreover, UNDP collaborates with a number of international agencies to integrate activities together for more strategic and comprehensive interventions, some of these agencies will include: International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), UNHCR, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and others. UNDP, as the lead of the livelihood sector, plays a key role in bringing all the different actors working in this sector together to coordinate their work. This means that there is a strong partnership with Government and UN agencies, international and local NGOs, the private sector, and other actors working in this sphere.

    Activities

    The UNDP Support to Livelihoods and Local Economic Development in Host Communities programme works in five areas to impact recovery and sustainable development:

    Vulnerable persons, in particular women and youth, affected by the Syria crisis benefit from rapid employment schemes based on community priorities, including:

    • Community health
      • Health awareness raising in key areas (such as hygiene, reproductive health, early marriage, nutrition, family planning, Gender Based Violence etc.)
      • This activity targets women beneficiaries from host communities and links them to existing local health care institutions
    • Environmental awareness raising and DRR
      • Rapid employment initiatives for Promotion of Environmental Protection and Disaster Risk Reduction may include: Reforestation and rehabilitation of forests that were damaged as a result of coping strategies, cleaning of drainage, canals and rivers for flood prevention, planting of trees along riverbanks to prevent floods, construction of flood relief canals and flood protection walls, Rehabilitation/repair of river embankment and coastal zones to protect against floods and impacts of storms. The identified Rapid Employment schemes will compliment national DRR strategies
    • Sustainable Agriculture
      • Rapid employment initiatives for agriculture may include: Construction or improvement of agricultural roads, construction or repair of terraces, fencing, construction of wells and water collection cisterns, rainwater harvesting, rehabilitation of agricultural land, rehabilitation or construction of irrigation infrastructure for enhanced crop cultivation and replanting of destroyed crops
      • This work will be conducted in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, National Reforestation Initiative and the Forest Fire Management strategy
    • Community Infrastructure
      • Rapid employment initiatives for small-scale community infrastructure may include: Water management systems and other water infrastructure, waste management and community centres as well as the rehabilitation of sanitation infrastructure, public roads, small bridges, public spaces and sidewalks
      • Activities in this area will be identified through a conflict sensitive needs assessment led by the Ministry of Social Affairs to identify risks, problems and possible solutions at the community level

    Workforce employability improved

    • Workforce employability includes:
      • Institutional capacity building, such as improving job matching services and enhancing educational curriculums
      • Market based assessments and private sector linkages to enhance demand driven skills development as well advocating for private sector schemes for investment in skills related to current competitive sectors and potential growth sectors
      • Capacity building intended to develop a skilled workforce, such as market driven training (e.g. technical training, business and communication, practical trainings etc.) and linkages with SMEs (e.g. internships, traineeships, job orientation etc.)

    Capacity of MSMEs sector to create jobs improved

    • Support to MSMEs will include:
      • Capacity building of institutions that support the MSME environment, including addressing gaps in the MSME ecosystem and building the capacities of current institutions
      • Support to existing MSMEs, such as improving the workplace, business development support (e.g. business support services, business linkages and marketing, development of business plans etc.) human resource support (development of current staff skills, assessment of skill needs etc.), decrease in production cost (e.g. energy saving), linking with universities (promotion of research and innovation)
      • Support to Startups, include developing entrepreneurship spirit, dissemination of in-kind and in cash support and incubation support services

    Competitive Integrated Value Chains strengthened and upgraded

    • Identify industries and areas where job creation would be particularly valuable in a geographic area or particularly advantageous to create employment for vulnerable people

    Policies, strategies and plans supporting job creation, MSMEs and livelihoods

    • Support for development of regional economic development strategies through private-public partnerships, such as support to the existing four LEDAs located in the North, South, Bekaa Valley and Beirut's Southern Suburbs
    Impact

    This project will increase the purchasing power of vulnerable groups through rapid employment. Secondarily, it will meet priority needs identified by local communities such as rebuilding infrastructure, reducing disaster risk and enhancing health awareness. It also promotes the implementation of national strategies at the local level.

    The project will also reduce unemployment, particularly for vulnerable women and youth; improve current workforce skills linked to market demand; create a more competitive MSME sector with strong institutional capacities; and strengthen the entrepreneurship environment.

    LPr7
    Improving living conditions in Palestinian gatherings host communities: towards more comprehensive and sustainable solutions

    The Project

    Since 2012, UNDP has been working in Palestinian gatherings (informal communities) in Lebanon to help meet urgent infrastructure and shelter needs due to new refugees from Syria. This project scales up UNDP's previous work in the Palestinian gatherings and provides more sustainable solutions for the basic needs of new Palestinian refugees from Syria (PRS) and lays the foundation for healthier living environments for host Palestinian refugee communities in Lebanon (PRL). The project will help reduce tension in Palestinian gatherings by targeting both host refugee as well as new refugee communities. It will also engage surrounding municipalities and communities.

    Budget 4,500,000 USD
    The Issue

    The situation of refugee communities living in Palestinian Gatherings in Lebanon is particularly severe. In addition to the 12 official Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon, a total of 42 Palestinian gatherings are distributed along the regions of Lebanon, housing Palestinian refugees in the South (Tyr and Saida), North, Beirut and Bekaa (refer to the map at the end of the document). Palestinian gatherings are informal settlements ‘constituting relatively homogenous refugee communities, such as smaller villages or households living in the same multi-story residential buildings" (Fafo, 2003)9. With the outbreak of the Syrian crisis, the population in the Gatherings has escalated from an estimated 110,000 to 140,000 with the arrival of new refugees, mostly also Palestinian, displaced from Syria. The sudden population increase in these high-density areas has amplified a difficult situation that has long existed: inadequate access to basic urban services and infrastructure networks as well as deteriorated hygiene and shelter conditions.

    Being informal areas, Palestinian gatherings remained excluded from national strategies or local development plans. This increases poverty and marginalization of the local refugee communities and contributes to the deterioration of the living environment. The forty-two gatherings fall under the municipal domain of twenty-five municipalities; however, municipalities in general do not intervene to provide basic urban services or improve the physical environment in these areas.

    The lack of municipal intervention is attributed to a number of reasons mainly: lack of financial resources; the security situation in the gatherings mainly adjacent to camps; and most importantly misconceptions that the gatherings are served by UNRWA. In fact, as per UNRWA's mandate, the Agency's services targeting refugees living in the gatherings are restricted to education and health coverage. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) interventions in terms of basic urban services, including Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), and shelter self-help programmes are restricted to the boundaries of the 12 official camps. Due to the lack of service providers, refugees living in the gatherings resort to a number of informal self-help initiatives to access and maintain basic urban services. While these informal practices that are affordable to dwellers ensure their access to some services, the services themselves are inadequate, insufficient and characterized by huge gaps and shortfalls. In addition, they are ultimately connected in an ad-hoc manner to the surrounding municipal networks or to the camps' networks in the case of gatherings that are adjacent to camps; no coordination mechanisms exist between the locations.

    Since 2012, with the increased influx of Palestinian and Syrian refugees from Syria, the conditions of the living environment in the gatherings have been dramatically worsening. In April 2013, UNDP and UN-Habitat completed a Rapid Needs Assessment (RNA) that covered all forty-two Palestinian Gatherings in Lebanon. Of the 53,000 Palestinian refugees displaced from Syria into Lebanon (UNRWA, 2013), an estimated 26,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria in addition to some 4,000 Syrian refugees are living in Palestinian gatherings. This has raised the number of dwellers in Palestinian gatherings to an estimated 140,000, more than 90% of whom are Palestinian refugees (PRL & PRS), exerting unprecedented pressure on the already insufficient and deteriorating basic urban services and infrastructure networks.

    New refugees are either renting shelters or hosted by the original refugees, bringing to bear additional burdens on the already poor original host refugee communities. This situation has worsened living conditions and increased environmental and health risks in the gatherings and their surroundings. Furthermore, the worsening of living conditions and the competition for limited resources and work opportunities has contributed to rising tensions within the gatherings as well as with the surrounding areas also hosting refugees from Syria.

    Strategy

    The goal of this project is to carry out a comprehensive and sustainable approach to improving living conditions in the Palestinian gatherings of South and North Lebanon. It will do this by focusing on the living environment (basic urban services, hygiene and shelter). Key strategies of the project are to:

    • Link relief response to longer-term sustainable development of the living environment in Palestinian gatherings
    • Strengthen the resilience of original host refugee communities and improving living conditions for new refugees from Syria in the gatherings
    • Reduce tensions by addressing concerns of both host and new refugees in the gatherings and by engaging local actors and local authorities

    The project targets the regions that include the highest numbers of vulnerable Palestinian gatherings, namely the 34 gatherings located in the South (Tyr and Saida) and North of Lebanon. These gatherings house an estimated 115,000 refugees, whether original refugees (95,000 PRL) or new refugees displaced from Syria (20,000 PRS). This project is planned over three years 2015 - 2017.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has a strong partnership with the Lebanese authorities at national and local levels this is also mirrored with the Palestinian refugee communities in Palestinian gatherings, specifically, women, NGOs, youth groups, and Palestinian Refugee Popular Committees. At the national level, the project will continue to work with the Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee at the Prime Minister's Office to ensure that interventions fall within the national priorities.

    In addition, UNDP will work to coordinate both UN agencies and international and local NGOs through the LCRP coordination structures. In this context, the relevant bodies are the Infrastructure and WASH sector working groups.

    Activities

    To reduce tensions and build for sustainability, the project will implement a participatory bottom-up approach that brings together the various actors both at the national and local levels. UNDP will build on the network of structures and partnerships already established in the context of its programme in Palestinian gatherings, which would enable it to scale up its programme in the gatherings without delay. These include:

    • Partnerships with governmental institutions such as the Lebanon Palestinian Dialogue Committee (LPDC), MoSA, the Council of Development and Reconstruction (CDR) and with other UN agencies such as UN-Habitat, UNRWA and United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
    • Reliable relationships with popular and local committees and CBOs in the gatherings, engaged through a bottom-up approach in the various stages of needs assessment, planning, decision-making and follow-up on implementation in the 30 gatherings
    • Successful attempts at engaging municipalities, out of which 6 so far have directly implemented projects in Palestinian gatherings through grants
    • Support to active local NGOs to carry out sustainable services and programmes in the gatherings
    • Coordination among organizations and institutions working in the gatherings, most recently culminated through leading the Gatherings Working Group coordination platform
    • Coordination with the WASH and shelter sectors established within the context of LCRP
    Impact

    The project will improve living conditions in Palestinian gathering host communities through comprehensive, sustainable solutions by:

    • Providing environmentally and economically sustainable systems of basic urban services (including water, sanitation and hygiene) in the gatherings, reaching 25,000 refugees. These services will be implemented
      • At the community level, in the form of sustainable infrastructure projects and BUS interventions
      • At household level to ensure availability of facilities and installments, proper connection to infrastructure networks and maximum conservation of water
    • Improving hygiene conditions for host and new refugee communities in the gatherings, reaching 15,000 refugees. The goal is to change hygiene behaviors in the gatherings through the implementation of awareness raising campaigns
    • Developing a national coordination and information-sharing platform for response and development in Palestinian gatherings, resulting in increased efficiency, responsiveness and cost-effectiveness
    • Establishing an information sharing and coordination platform through the Gatherings Working Group (an inter-agency group chaired by UNDP). The platform will generate information and data to guide planning of interventions in the gatherings together with organizations active in these areas in the two sectors of basic urban services (BUS) and shelter

    9. Fafo was founded by the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) in 1982 as an internal research department. In 1993, Fafo was established as an independent research foundation with an endowment made up of contributions from both organised labour in Norway and Norwegian businesses, including LO, Orkla ASA, Umoe AS, Elkem ASA, Coop Norge, Sparebank1 Gruppen, Fagforbundet, and Telenor AS Today, both labour and business representatives sit on Fafo's board

    LPr8
    Supporting basic services delivery in communities most affected by the Syria crisis

    The Project

    This project will build local and national capacity to deliver basic services (water, sanitation, health) in the areas affected by the Syria crisis. This will increase stability and reduce tensions in these areas. The project builds on UNDP joint work with MoSA10 launched in 2013: the "Lebanese Host Communities Support Project" (LHSP). This is a comprehensive, coordinated and durable multi-sectorial response to the Syrian refugee crisis.

    Budget 60,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    The impact of the Syrian crisis on Lebanon is reaching a scale unprecedented in the history of complex, refugee-driven emergencies, with almost 1.2 million registered refugees (25% of Lebanese population) placing enormous pressure on the country and its people, especially those in the poorest areas, where refugee concentrations and ratio (Lebanese/Syrian) have been greatest. In addition, Lebanon currently hosts 270,000 Palestine refugees.

    Recent statistics show that, 29% of the displaced Syrians are unable to meet their survival needs and an estimate of one-third lack legal stay documentation, limiting their capacity to sustain their own well-being. Moreover, an estimated 330,000 Lebanese are living in extreme poverty. In total, over two million people in the country - most of them concentrated in the poorest communities - are now vulnerable to the worst effects of poverty: homelessness, illness and malnutrition, and negative coping strategies such as child labor or child marriage.

    Since 2011, Lebanese unemployment has doubled with the highest ratios among youth reaching 34%. Moreover, Lebanese national health, education and infrastructure services are overstretched with the local municipal structures bearing the brunt of the needs of the growing local communities. The crisis is exacerbating significant development deficiencies such as unemployment, especially among women and youth, basic services at the municipal level and profound disparities between the wealthy and the poor. Tensions are rising and can be especially observed in the most under-served parts of the country. A collective, reinforced effort to tackle these development gaps in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis is essential to Lebanon's stability and potential.

    The large influx of Syrians across Lebanon has directly affected the public and service sectors at the national scale. The surge in demand for land, waste disposal, water resources, and electricity, health and education has raced ahead of capacity to meet it, raising municipal costs. Public institutions cannot cope with the added volume of needs in a country, where major development challenges predated the crisis, and the private sector traditionally delivers many public services

    Municipalities are struggling to bear the burden - one study showed that municipal spending on waste disposal climbed 40 percent between 2012 and 2013- suggesting a strong focus on local capacities for 2015. Heads of Municipalities and their municipal-level staff are challenged daily to meet the increasing needs of their constituents with scarce resources, while simultaneously remedying the effects of the Syria refugee crisis.

    Most municipalities, especially small towns located in the rural and remote areas, rely on funds transfers from the national government and its public entities (specifically transfers from the Independent Municipal Fund (IMF)). Unfortunately, there is an average of a 1-2 year delay in the transfer of these funds; moreover, the national government did not allocate additional funds to the IMF to address the increased needs of the municipalities in light of the Syrian Crisis and overuse of the existing, already weak, municipal services. Addressing basic services needs in particular should align humanitarian interventions to public services and infrastructure development in national systems and programs.

    Strategy

    The goal of this project is to enhance municipal services in 100 of the 242 most vulnerable municipalities, impacting both host community and refugee populations. It will do this by strengthening the capacity of national and local delivery systems to expand access to and quality of basic public services. This will lead to a reduction in tension levels. The project will continue until the municipalities' capacity increases as defined by the Map of Risks and Resources and they have the ability to manage interventions in the long-term.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP has strong partnerships with the Lebanese authorities at national and local levels as well as other actors such as civil society. At the national level, UNDP is working closely with the relevant ministries to guarantee that local interventions are supported in the framework of national priorities and respective policies. MoSA11 is the key government partner and the institutional coordinator for the LCRP.

    The governance structure of the LHSP project is through a Steering Committee and Inter-Ministerial Technical Group, which produces criteria and basic tools to ensure consistency in selecting, targeting, and formulation of projects according to the main national policies. The MoSA structures at area level, set up for supporting the implementation of LHSP, guarantee the ownership of the national government and the alignment with national policies.

    The local working groups existing at the community level guarantee the local ownership of the interventions. The Multi Sectorial Municipal Action Plans are prepared for effective interventions, promoting synergies and avoiding the duplications of efforts.

    UNDP is known for its capacity to bring all sectors of a community together in a participatory approach to identify needs and to address community tensions. UNDP is the overall lead on the LCRP with regards to Stabilization as well as leading the Social Stability and Livelihood sectors.

    Activities

    UNDP will assess needs and develop interventions through a participatory conflict-sensitive methodology (Maps of Risks and Resources), which will result in a Multi-Sectorial Municipal Action Plan. This plan supports coordinated interventions at municipal and cluster level. Over 150 communities out of 242 have already been mapped and priority projects have already been identified, in coordination with municipalities, civil society organizations, MoSA and main-line ministries.

    UNDP is working closely with the relevant ministries to guarantee that local interventions are supported in the framework of national priorities and respective policies: the governance structure of the LHSP project operates with an inter-sectoral structure of decision making (Steering Committee and Inter-Ministerial Technical Group), which produces criteria and basic tools to ensure consistency in selecting, targeting, and formulation of projects according to the main national policies.

    Impact

    By the end of 2015, 100 high-risk municipalities and local actors in those municipalities will have stronger capacity to deliver basic services in a participatory manner. Services will have improved in the 100 target municipalities, which are significantly affected by the influx of refugees The overall impact of the project is a reduction in the level of tension between refugees and host communities in target areas. This will benefit around 900,000 registered refugees (56% Lebanese and 44% Syrian). The project was developed under the LCRP/Social Stability Sector, targeting 100 out of 242 most vulnerable communities with the mandate to complete the work in one year.

    10. The Ministry of Social Affairs lead the institutional coordination of the LCRP for the Government of Lebanon.

    11. The Ministry of Social Affairs lead the institutional coordination of the LCRP for the Government of Lebanon.

    End of this country's projects. Select another?

    Jordan

    Select a programme:

    • JPr1Strengthening organizational development, financial management and fiscal capacities of municipalities affected by the Syrian crisis
    • JPr2Improving solid waste management and income generation in host communities - Rehabilitation of Al Akedir landfill
    • JPr3Enhancing rule of law and access to justice in host communities
    • JPr4Enhancing air quality control and management
    • JPr5Mitigating the increased competition for natural resources and ecosystem services at the community level
    • JPr6Managing environmental risks from the Jordan response plan to the Syria crisis
    • JPr7Green lights: Scaling-up energy efficient lighting in host communities
    • JPr8Improving the management of hazardous medical waste
    • JPr9Building resilience through enhancing livelihoods and employment opportunities
    • JPr10Local development planning (including economic aspects) aligned with new context
    • JPr11Solar aid: Expanding solar PV use in Jordanian communities hosting Syrian refugees

    JPr1
    Strengthening organizational development, financial management and fiscal capacities of municipalities affected by the Syrian crisis

    The Project

    This project is part of UNDP's Improved Delivery of Municipal and Social Services programme, which constitutes a key pillar of the host communities initiative, an ongoing project launched in 2012. It will strengthen municipalities by building their capacity to increase organizational effectiveness. It will also strengthen financial management and fiscal capacities of municipalities affected by the Syrian crisis. This project will strengthen municipalities by building their capacity to increase organizational effectiveness. It will also strengthen financial management and fiscal capacities of municipalities affected by the Syrian crisis (Irbid, Mafraq and New Ramtha). To understand capacity building needs, a capacity assessment for 36 municipalities will be conducted by the end of 2015. The focus of the capacity assessment is to measure progress in the host communities initiative and to provide insights to further strengthen the municipality systems, processes and staff capacities.

    Budget 1,500,000 USD
    The Issue

    Results of the assessment will be used by municipalities as they plan their capacity building needs. UNDP will support municipalities by facilitating the identification and hiring of experts in organizational development and financial management, from national counterparts where possible, within the overall framework of UNDP Jordan assistance.

    The continuous pressure on municipalities to deliver services has been affected by limited capacity to address housing shortages, to encourage local economic development, and to support social cohesion within communities. The sudden increase in population has contributed to the increase of local tensions, particularly from Jordanian citizens in host communities that are starting to demand a more effective response to their own needs from state institutions and local authorities.

    The annual cost to provide for municipal needs is estimated at US$ 176.4 million , equivalent to US$ 115 per capita and continues to increase because of population shifts. Given that the majority of Syrians reside outside of camps in the northern governorates, the additional cost incurred by these municipalities reached around US$ 40.5 million by the end of 2013, and it is likely that it will be over US$ 50 million per year in 2014 and 2015. In sum, the Syria crisis is posing additional challenges to local governance and municipal services.

    While the Ministry of Municipal Affairs (MoMA) is upgrading its financial management systems to meet the increased demand, it is not able to cope and service levels have decreased. At the same time, MoMA is also developing regulatory frameworks to guide municipalities in their administrative duties so they are carried out in a just and fair way. (Too often management is concentrated in the hands of the Mayor with insufficient checks and-balances by the Municipal Council.)

    To make matters worse, municipalities have insufficient capacity in terms of their administrative and technical staff, financial management and accounting systems and they lack equipment.

    Additionally, municipalities suffer from severe financial distress. For example, salary spending still consumes an excessive share of municipal budgets (60% in average, and as high as 85% in some locations). Debt service has become unsustainable for many municipalities and revenue generation is constrained by legislation and vested interests. All of this leaves municipal authorities with little, if any, investment capacity (60% of municipalities did not invest in capital projects in the past year).

    Strategy

    The overall objective of this project is to support municipalities in strengthening their systems, processes and staff capacities. It starts with a needs assessment and puts a process in place to facilitate hiring of appropriate expertise to build capacity. More specifically, the project:

    • Ensures that the Jordanian local governance system is responsive to host citizens, communities, and Syrian Refugees' needs as identified by governorates most affected by the Syrian refugee crisis
    • Transforms local governance systems resulting in better performance in core functions and a more enabling legal and fiscal framework
    • Supports organizational development, financial management and fiscal capacities of municipalities

    UNDP will develop and implement a rigorous results framework to link organizational development and financial management interventions with desired outcomes. Indicators are designed at all levels to measure quantitative and qualitative progress towards results. Baseline performance measures will be established by compiling existing data (including for data made available from MoMA).

    To carry out the project, UNDP will mobilize national and international expertise, embedding organizational development and financial management support within relevant Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Local Governance institutions. In other areas, and depending on the nature of the request for assistance, the project will act as a facilitator, broker and coordinator of support by using its extensive network of partner organizations. This will enhance national advocacy efforts on top priorities. Resources will be allocated to facilitate provision of specialized technical expertise upon demand from national counterparts where possible, and within the overall framework of UNDP Jordan assistance.

    Partnership Framework

    The Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC) will continue to be the main government partner, and will also be the overall coordinating authority of this project. The Ministry of Municipal Affairs will provide overall guidance, policy-setting and advocacy to ensure the mandate is adopted by municipalities. It will also be closely involved in supervisory and monitoring roles.

    Building on previous work, the project will work with local authorities to plan, coordinate and implement the priority interventions. It will develop, with local authorities, a monitoring framework to track implementation status and adjust deliverables against any changes on the ground to ensure that interventions remain relevant. The project will concentrate its implementation in 3 governorates namely Irbid, Mafraq and New Ramtha with attention to geographic areas with high levels of social tension.

    The Project will rely on the close working relationships with municipalities and local NGOs, which have developed through the UNDP Flagship Host Community Programme. At the same time, will keep channels open for additional partnerships in order to support a more efficient and coordinated response to host community concerns. Strong partnerships will be established with international donors (including Gulf countries, the European Commission, Netherlands, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom).

    Activities

    In order to respond to increased demands on municipalities and to assist the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, the project will strengthen municipalities by building their capacity to increase organizational effectiveness. Key activities include:

    • A capacity assessment of 36 municipalities in the most effected areas
    • Summaries of capacity building needs for each municipality
    • A results-measurement framework to support progress toward organizational and financial management goals
    • Facilitation of hiring organizational development and financial management experts to carry out capacity building efforts
    Impact

    The overall expected outcome under this initiative is to increase the efficiency of municipal administrative and service delivery processes, and to enhance investment for local development.

    JPr2
    Improving solid waste management and income generation in host communities - Rehabilitation of Al Akedir landfill

    The Project

    This project responds to the urgent need for solid waste management and treatment in Irbid Governorate by supporting improvement of the solid waste management cycle and by strengthening efficient and effective basic service delivery. This will be done through rehabilitation of the main landfill, as well as efficiency gains in solid waste management. UNDP will also support the development of improved solid waste management cycle at municipal levels (collection, transfer, landfills, recycle and re-use) and support funding and implementation of labour intensive recycling activities. In addition, livelihoods and small and medium-sized businesses in waste management will be strengthened. This includes establishing a cooperative society for recycling and marketable products to increase community income, rehabilitation and development of the capacities of waste pickers. Relevant capacity building will be provided to MoMA, Joint Service Council (JSC) and landfill staff members.

    In summary, the project is a multi-sectorial response to address urgent solid waste management needs, helping municipal governments recover from the impact of refugees in the areas of service delivery, local governance, and livelihoods and economic recovery.

    Budget 26,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    A major impact of the dramatic increase in population is the additional pressure exerted on Jordan's natural resources and waste management systems. Water, soil, and air pollution have increased due to the inability of municipalities to cope with increased waste, including illegal dumping and the inappropriate disposal and burning of solid waste.

    Managing waste removal is challenging because of increase in waste and a deteriorating waste management system due to overuse. For example:

    • The volume of medical waste has increased due to the expansion of healthcare services
    • Irbid, Mafraq and Ramtha, are characterized by a massively littered environment
    • Damaged waste removal vehicles and rubbish containers impede waste removal on a regular basis
    • Limited capacity at landfills is creating negative consequences such as burning of solid waste and illegal dumping

    Akedir landfill is one of the hotspots in Jordan for the disposal of both solid and liquid wastes. The landfill receives the solid waste generated by about 100 towns, villages and communities in northern Jordan. The landfill started operation back in 1980. The criterion used in the site selection was mainly based on pure economic considerations, without taking into account other landfill selection criteria. Due to its environmental and health impacts the landfill was the subject of national debate.

    At the Alakedir site, the amount of solid waste disposed has increased by 50% from 800 tons in 2010 to 1200 tons in 2014 as a result of the Syrian refugee crises. Waste disposal at the Alakedir landfill however is inappropriate and dangerous, with deteriorating landfill infrastructure and workshop equipment, inadequate offices for employees, and unsanitary landfilling process. For example, landfills often lack leachate, biogas control and proper management and an overall operational plan to manage the solid waste. The Alakedir landfill has no recycling interventions.13

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the project is to improve the solid waste management cycle through the implementation of efficient and effective basic services delivery. The key strategies are to:

    • Support JSC in their efforts to find a solution to the limited capacity of Alakedir Landfill and to increase its performance
    • Build municipal services and infrastructure in the 27 municipalities in the Mafraq and Irbid governorates
    • Facilitate urgently required investment and capacity in equipment and service delivery of solid waste management services
    • Assess immediate capacity development requirements in the solid waste management cycle (e.g. storm water and sewage maintenance)
    Partnership Framework

    The main partners in the project include MoMA, MoE and JSC for target municipalities in Irbid and the Government of Canada.

    Activities

    The immediate objective is to respond to the urgent needs of solid waste management and treatment in Irbid Governorate by:

    • Immediately addressing the increasing problem of solid waste disposal and treatment at the Alakedir landfill through intensive labour programmes and innovative solutions
    • Strengthening the capabilities of MoMA and JSC in Irbid to enhance capacity for service delivery, emergency response and waste-related local economic development
    • Supporting the development of livelihoods opportunities in the area of solid waste management

    More specifically, UNDP will help review and assess the governance structure of the Al Akedir landfill, and help MoMA and JSC in Irbid address the deteriorating status of the solid waste chain.

    UNDP will support increase the efficiency of municipal administration and service delivery processes to improve equitable service delivery and encourage investment for local development. In this way, UNDP will support the JSC to fulfil their mandate as prescribed by the Municipalities Law. Adhering to environmental laws, the project will comply by including Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), which are mandatory in Jordan for projects with environmental risks. To ensure that environmental impact and sustainability is mainstreamed across all projects, the Environment Task Force, working closely with the MoE, will provide dedicated technical support to the JRP 2015 Secretariat to undertake: 1) rapid EIAs, 2) lead environmental reviews, 3) identify opportunities, and 4) design mitigation strategies for the project. A technical committee comprising of members from MoE and MoMA will be established to guide the implementation. UNDP will also support the establishment of a donor-government coordination mechanism on Al Akedir interventions.

    Impact

    The project will deliver results at the local and national level through:

    • Improved service delivery in solid waste management by using participatory planning, improving equipment and considering best practices
    • Improved debris removal services in the most affected municipalities
    • Strengthened capacity of MoMA, MoE and the JSC to plan, coordinate and implement waste management systems
    • Building capacity for municipalities to optimize waste collection treatment and equipment maintenance
    • Assessing need for investment in infrastructure (e.g. road maintenance and development, street lighting, small/storm water and sewage maintenance works, parks and public space maintenance, slaughterhouse improvements and development)
    • Increased solid waste management to livelihoods and small and medium-sized business opportunities
    • Completed value-chain analysis of all components of the solid waste management cycle to identify income-generation and business generation opportunities that strengthen livelihoods in the effected areas
    • Capacity development of local implementing partners (Civil Society Organizations (CSO), women's groups, the private sector, etc.) involved in the waste management programme

    13. Need Assessment Review, Nov 2013

    JPr3
    Enhancing rule of law and access to justice in host communities

    The Project

    The project will assist in the promotion of rule of law through provision of support to the justice sector in Jordan, with particular focus on host communities. The project aims to promote an enabling environment that will increase access to justice through sustainable legal aid service delivery and enhanced capacity of the Ministry of Justice (MoJ), including the courts. Under this project, assistance will be provided for institutional and capacity development to rule of law institutions to ensure effective and speedy provision of justice services. The Project will also work on linking community based and formal justice institutions at the local level, including aid in the creation of inclusive dialogue.

    Project activities are designed to enhance confidence and trust in rule of law institutions at both the national and local level. In doing so, UNDP will engage with MoJ, the Judicial Authority (Judiciary), Public Security Directorate, "Prosecution" and the Jordanian Bar Association. Engagement will be designed to increase sustainability, including a major emphasis on national ownership and linking activities to policy and strategy development.

    The project is oriented around three main, reinforcing outcomes:

    • Enhanced access to justice and legal counseling
    • Strengthened institutional capacity of the Ministry of Justice and the Courts
    • Strengthened capacity of the Sharia Courts
    Budget 6,350,000 USD
    The Issue

    In spite of the government's commitment to ensure access to justice and enhance judicial capacity in Jordan, the justice sector has faced a number of challenges since the start of the Syrian crisis. This is in part due to the steady increase in the total number of judicial cases, which now include Syrians living in Jordan. For example there have been caseload increases of 50% in Amman from 2011 to 2014, 77% in Irbid, and 84% in Mafraq. While violence and criminality levels in Jordan are quite low, according to the Public Security Directorate (PSD), there has been an increase in the northern region of criminal acts, assaults, and proliferation of small arms. These have posed specific challenges mainly in the following areas:

    The institutional capacity of the justice system and Sharia courts has been challenged by technical and operational limitations, which have a direct impact on the performance of the courts and their ability to ensure a fair trial. This includes juvenile courts, which have gained importance since the Juvenile Law was endorsed in 2014. Juvenile courts have also faced challenges due to increasing demand for speedy and child-friendly procedures. There are only three dedicated juvenile courts operating in Amman, Zarqa and Irbid that are challenged by the increasing demand for speedy and child-friendly procedures. Further pressures are placed on juvenile courts from the increasing numbers of Syrian youth coming in contact with the law.

    The provincial courts are in dire need of more staff and facilities to reduce the administrative burden on judges, the escalating caseloads, and the ability of the courts to ensure a fair trial. The judges have increased case loads and must put in a great deal of working hours per day, which minimizes the quality of the work, and also impacts the time that affected people have to wait before their case can be seen by a judge.

    There is a strict separation of the civil court system and Sharia' and other religious courts that essentially act as "family courts". Because these courts play a central role in access to justice especially with regard to women and girls, it is important to strengthen the linkages of these courts with the rest of the justice system.

    Obtaining free legal aid and counsel services for those who cannot afford legal support and representation is difficult. There is no comprehensive legal aid framework and statistics on demand for legal services, where they exist, reveal that legal aid services are poorly targeted without coordination or consideration of cost.14

    Courts are only mandated to grant legal representation for adults in criminal cases entailing death penalty and/or life imprisonment. Legal aid is granted by virtue of the Bar Association's law of 1972 but in practice access to free legal aid remains a challenge especially for vulnerable groups, women and children.15 The Bar Association currently lacks any mechanism for allocating indigent cases to practicing attorneys for pro bono legal representation. Moreover, there is no enforcement mechanism available.16

    There is also a lack of awareness of rights and duties amongst the Jordanian public as well as Syrian refugees,17 which on the one hand prevents individuals from claiming their rights and on the other hand places individuals face to face with unintentional law breaking situations.

    With the absence of a comprehensive legal aid representation law and lack of a coordinating body, access to legal counsel and aid are currently being provided by a number of CSOs, providing services to indigent and vulnerable groups—especially women and SGBV survivors—across Jordan and within host communities including the Zaatari Refugee Camp.

    Legal aid for refugees is limited. Arab Renaissance for Democracy and Development (ARDD) Legal Aid is the only legal aid CSO operating in the Zaatari refugee camp.

    The lack of a legal aid framework results in sporadic and unsustainable provision of legal aid across Jordan. This situation hinders poor and vulnerable people's access to justice and especially affects girls, women and refugees disproportionately.

    Strategy

    The objective of the project is to enhance prompt access to justice and quality of legal services for the most vulnerable women, girls, men and boys in Jordan in areas with an increased caseload due to the influx of Syrian refugees.

    UNDP will work at the national and local levels to increase access to justice in host communities. Support will be designed to provide immediate access to justice and redress in host communities by strengthening mechanisms at the local level that include 1) piloting legal aid clinics, 2) operationalizing fast-track/dockets in pilot courts, 3) strengthening Sharia' Courts and their linkages to Family Protection Units as well as, 4) working with and strengthening alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. In order to ensure sustainability of access to legal aid, support will be provided to national actors at the strategic level to institutionalize legal aid and put in place a regulating framework.

    The project will also provide support to Sharia' and Religious Court extension offices in host communities to enhance their mechanisms of cooperation, communication and linkages with Family Protection Units and legal aid service providers. Technical advisory services and trainings will be provided to the judges of the Sharia courts operating in host communities to familiarize them with issues facing women, youth and children in host communities and other critical areas in Jordan. Additionally, the project will roll out relevant legal awareness campaigns.

    Partnership Framework

    The Project will be implemented under the guidance of the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC) and MoJ in close collaboration with the PSD, the Judiciary, the prosecutors, the police, Ministry of Social Development, Sharia' Courts, Jordanian Bar Association, National Centre for Human Rights, National Women's Commission, and other leading Jordanian CSOs especially those working on human rights and justice issues.

    Activities

    The project will increase access to justice, provision of legal aid and counselling across Jordan and improve legal aid services in host communities through the following activities:

    • Facilitate government and non-governmental providers of legal aid and counselling as they support vulnerable individuals, including survivors of Gender Based Violence (GBV), women & girls and juveniles
    • Build capacity in juvenile courts and new court houses
    • Encourage dialogue between the mainstream justice sector and Sharia and other religious Courts
    Impact

    The project Enhanced access to justice for the most vulnerable women, girls, men and boys in Jordan, will 1) improve the national capacity to implement justice reform strategies at national and sub-national levels and enhance the legislative processes so that more vulnerable groups have access to legal aid; 2) strengthen the institutional, human resource and technical capacity of the MoJ and the courts, and 3) reinforce the institutional and human capacity of the Shari'a courts including ensuring that they are gender and child-sensitive.

    14. Id., citing, Justice Centre for Legal Aid (JCLA) study (2010). The JCLA study showed that 47% of cases in Jordan where legal representation was provided involved personal status issues. The vast majority of cases (81%) involved civil law as opposed to criminal law legal issues.

    15. According to several studies: in 2011 it was found that 68% of defendants in Jordan did not have legal representation and in pre-trial cases 83% defendants did not have legal representation (Justice Center); another study found that women are more likely than men - 26% versus 17% - to report avoiding court due to customs and traditions (World Bank, 2013). Social pressure also steers women from initiating claims directly with formal institutions. Nearly 70% of requests for legal aid assistance come from women (Justice Center for Legal Aid).

    16. "A Survey of Pro Bono Pracices and Opportunities in 71 Jurisdictions", Latham & Watkins LLP (August 2012).

    17. According to UNDP Interviews conducted with public prosecutors, judges and lawyers working in and with courts in host communities.

    JPr4
    Enhancing air quality control and management

    The Project

    This project will provide technical assistance to the MoE to strengthen its capacity to mitigate air pollution and help communities recover from the impact of increased population and support the transformation to more sustainable development. Key activities include:

    • Installing air quality monitoring systems in host communities
    • Identifying and quantify sources of air pollution
    • Designing and implementing a pollution mitigation mechanism

    The key outcome is a system to monitor and decrease air pollution levels, which will ultimately improve health conditions and decrease public health costs.

    Budget 4,050,000 USD
    The Issue

    Increase in population, vehicle use and an expanding industrial and services sector is leading to an increase in air pollution. This degradation of the air quality is adversely impacting public health. The MoE monitors Sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) in five areas vulnerable to air pollution and notes an increase in pollutants emitted into the ambient air. Emissions are highly associated with human daily activities, and they increase in direct proportional trend with population size. For example, in the Irbid governorate, which hosts 25% of the refugees, there has been a dramatic increase in the concentrations over the past 5 years that parallels population growth. According to the Monitoring Study, this increase is due to unprecedented rise in population, especially with the presence of more than 150,000 refugees in Irbid (MoE, 2013).

    Air quality issues are challenged by lack of capacities and technologies for maintaining the monitoring programme of air quality, which is a first step toward pollution mitigation. It is worth noting that there is no facility that measures air quality at the Zaatari camp site and other refugee camps. Also because of the increase in population and human activities, all emitting factors such as waste water treatment plants and factories have been maximizing their productive capacities, resulting in more emissions. Due to the increase of these emissions, respiratory allergies are likely to rise in Jordan especially among children. It is clear from the study that all monitored pollutants (except NO2) started showing an increasing trend in 2012/2013. However, such short period of measurements is not enough to judge the observance of a certain trend and more measurements should be collected in the future.

    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to establish a strong and sustainable air quality monitoring system and to find ways to mitigate pollution in order to reduce health-related risks. By understanding sources of pollution and finding ways to reduce emissions where refugees are located, Jordan can continue its transformation toward an environmentally sustainable society.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP will work jointly with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and with the MoE as major implementing partners. They will collaborate with key government entities involved in air pollution issues such as the Ministry of Health and the Royal Scientific Society (the MoE's technical arm in air pollution motoring).

    Activities

    The project will facilitate a process to install pollution monitoring systems, identify sources of pollution and develop a plan to mitigate pollution.

    Install air quality monitoring systems in host communities

    Building on existing initiatives, the project will develop an air quality and emissions monitoring network and database. The project will facilitate investments to establish air quality monitoring stations in host communities and near the Syrian refugee camps. It will also collaborate with UNDP projects enhancing waste management facilities in Al-Akaider and Azraq. The project will also strengthen the monitoring and knowledge management capacities agencies (Department of Statistics and Royal Scientific Society) to increase effectiveness of planning and field monitoring.

    Identify and quantify sources of air pollution

    With a dramatic increase in population size due to the influx of refugees and an increase in industrial activity and vehicle use, sources of air pollution have changed. The project will identify and quantify sources of pollution and measure pollution levels, particularly in the host communities. A technical report will be produced as a result of this output.

    Design and implement a pollution mitigation mechanism

    Based on new findings on sources of pollution, the project will design and implement mechanisms to mitigate pollution. Since industrial activities are thought to be largest sources of air pollution, they will be the main target for pollution mitigation. These may include the removal of barriers to use renewable energy, such as solar energy. The project will also develop and implement a plan to install appropriate small-scale green technologies including solar water heaters, recycling, and bio-energy.

    Impact

    The project will improve health and environmental conditions, helping Jordan achieve more sustainable development by:

    • Decreasing air pollution levels in areas where refugees are concentrated
    • Identifying quantities and sources of air pollutants to inform mitigation plans
    • Mitigating pollution by decreasing pollutants emitted and increasing polluters' performance efficiency
    • Enhancing monitoring and knowledge management capacities for measuring air quality
    • Developing an air quality monitoring network and database on emissions and air quality

    JPr5
    Mitigating the increased competition for natural resources and ecosystem services at the community level

    The Project

    The project will help host communities recover from the impact refugees are having on the environment and help Jordan continue its transformation toward an environmentally sustainable society. The four key areas of the project are to:

    • Complete an assessment to identify vulnerable geographical areas and groups
    • Design and implement a sustainable income-generation programme (green business and jobs) for vulnerable communities
    • Implement community awareness campaigns on sustainable uses of natural resources
    • Enhance capacity for improved environmental law enforcement

    Key outcomes are to strengthen ability to respond to stresses on the environment and to reduce severe damage to the ecosystem.

    Budget 3,750,000 USD
    The Issue

    A key environmental vulnerability in Jordan is associated with land degradation and the state of terrestrial semi-arid ecosystems and habitats. Land use in Jordan is a complex pattern and mixture of rural and urban activities that reflect both climate and socio-economic characteristics. Relevant studies have shown that agricultural land forms a small portion of the country total area. The natural biodiversity of Jordan is threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation, unsustainable agricultural practices (i.e. extensive farming and agricultural waste), diversion of water from use of biodiversity resources towards human-influenced uses, uncontrolled urbanization, and industrial pollution.

    It is complex to assess the direct impact of refugees with regard to interaction with ecosystems and their associated biodiversity. However, there is observed evidence that the influx of refugees has had a negative impact on natural resources. For example, many refugees with nomadic and/or rural backgrounds are involved in livestock husbandry and agricultural activities. Host communities employ nomadic and rural Syrian refugees as low-cost labor/workers to support their agriculture related activities, as well as the operation of nature-based tourism enterprises.

    Refugees in rural areas create pressure on the ecosystem by 1) grazing within and in surrounding of the protected areas, 2) wood cutting for heating and charcoal production purposes, 3) excessive collection of medicinal plants from wilderness areas, and 4) excessive farming activities that eventually lead to extra pressure on agricultural land. Additionally, the environmental gains of reforestation are significant, including biodiversity conservation and prevention of natural hazards.

    Additionally, the economic impacts of refugees' crisis force hosting communities to exercise more direct and indirect pressures on natural resources. One clear example is the increasing trend of illegal tree cutting to compensate for increased fuel prices, overgrazing of livestock in response to inability to secure high cost fodder, and illegal wildlife hunting. In summary, there are increasing pressures on the ecosystem as both refugees and host community citizens cope with increased population and differing consumption patterns.

    Strategy

    The key objective of the project is to enhance coping mechanisms of to reduce environmental damage and that help rural and nomadic refugees. In the long-term the project intends to help Jordan continue its transformation toward sustainability and environmental integrity as a member of the international community.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP jointly with UNEP will partner with the MoE as a major implementing partner, in addition to other key Government entities involved in biodiversity conservation, ecosystem management (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water and the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, that is mandated to establish and manage protected areas).

    The project will also engage the NGOs community concerned with issues of nature conservation, livelihood development, awareness and law enforcement, such as the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, Jordan Environment Society, Friends of Environment and others. Additionally, it will include citizens as partners through local community participation and awareness building.

    Activities

    The project aims to identify vulnerable geographic areas and create a comprehensive plan to minimize environmental damage through the following activities:

    Complete an assessment to identify vulnerable geographical areas and groups

    The project will conduct a comprehensive vulnerability assessment of impacts of Syrian refugees on natural ecosystems and vulnerable communities. The assessment will help inform offset programmes to minimize the cost of ecosystem degradation brought by impact of additional population on Jordan's already challenged natural resource base. The assessment will include economic valuation of ecosystem services and degradation cost.

    Design and implement a sustainable income-generation programme (green business and jobs) for vulnerable communities

    To decrease competition on natural resources and the ecosystem, alternative income generation opportunities will be created for vulnerable groups, including women and youth in impacted areas. The project will catalyze creation of green jobs and businesses for the surroundings communities of protected areas, which will decrease pressure on natural resources and land degradation. The project will also build capacity of local community-based organizations to create green businesses increase awareness of sustainable uses of natural resources.

    Implement community awareness campaigns on sustainable uses of natural resources

    The project will design and implement community awareness campaigns that educate and encourage sustainable use of natural resources. The campaigns will include interactive and creative awareness tools, in addition to social media awareness. A survey on level of awareness at the community level will be used to assess baseline before implementation and to measure impacts.

    Enhance capacity for improved environmental law enforcement

    In consultation with local authorities, the project will design a mechanism to enhance enforcement of ecosystems management legislation. Capacity building in environmental monitoring and inspection will include training for rangers as well as the purchase of needed equipment and tools such as vehicles, Global Positioning System (GPS) and cameras.

    Impact

    Expected impacts include:

    • Enhanced understanding of the actual impacts of Syrian refugees on natural resources and ecosystem services; this includes quantification of the impacts, economic valuation of ecosystem services and degradation costs, and offsetting priorities
    • Enhancement of economic condition for vulnerable communities and lessening the competition on ecosystem services
    • Community awareness about sustainable use of natural resources raised
    • Capacities of concerned authorities enhanced in respect of environment law enforcement

    The project will strengthen the capacities to respond to the stresses and severe damages to the ecosystem and associated communities caused by the Syrian refugees fluxes more effectively when done in a sustainable manner. Furthermore, the project will contribute to reducing pressure and competition on natural resources, raising awareness and enhancing enforcement of environmental law. The project will generate economic and social development dividends including livelihoods creation besides nature conservation benefits.

    JPr6
    Managing environmental risks from the Jordan response plan to the Syria crisis

    The Project

    This project will ensure that environmental implications of important JRP investments are understood in order to inform decision-making and programmatic responses. It will include environmental risk management across JRP projects in infrastructure, transportation, municipal services, land use and other key areas to ensure that JRP projects include sustainable responses to vulnerable ecosystems and communities affected by the Syria crisis.

    Three key elements of the project are:

    • Strategic Environmental Assessment of natural resource security impact from the long-term Syrian crisis and the JRP
    • Environmental Impact Assessment and Screening of individual JRP projects
    • Environmental Mitigation Plans for individual JRP projects

    The intention is to integrate environmental awareness into all JRP projects in order to minimize negative impacts on the environment.

    Budget 900,000 USD
    The Issue

    In an already resource-scarce and environmentally fragile country like Jordan, environmental sustainability is an important priority to ensure the response to the Syrian refugee crisis minimizes short-term environmental damage and facilitate long-term environmental stability. If due consideration is not given to environmental sustainability issues, JRP investments, including more than $1.8 billion of proposed projects in 2015, could exacerbate local environmental challenges and risks. Mitigation measures can be put in place during the initial design of JRP investment projects to address environmental risks and help prevent ecological change as well as risks to community well-being and grievances.

    All projects with potential environmental impacts in Jordan, whether through the JRP process or otherwise, are obliged by law to conduct an EIA. EIAs highlight the foreseen environmental risks to put in place mitigation measures and to engage positive opportunities through use of clean technologies and resource conservation measures.18 A number of JRP projects are likely to require EIAs such as those in shelter, infrastructure development, transport, municipal development, land use, and water supply. Conducting effective environmental risk screening of significant JRP investments can help achieve the environmental safeguard requirements by international donors and Jordanian law.

    Strategy

    The strategy is to integrate environmental impact assessment and risk management activities into JRP projects as early as possible in the project design phase in order to ensure the environmental impact is minimized and managed.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP will partner with the MoE and other key Government entities involved in implementing Jordan's EIA law as well as local community partners engaged in these JRP projects. UNDP's global network of experts in environmental screening systems are also important partners in the project because of their experience in the UNDP Social and Environmental Screening (SES) mechanism. These partners include UN agencies, top ranked universities and institutes with EIA expertise who have helped UNDP lead environmental assessment methodologies and develop best practice in environmental screening.

    Activities

    Strategic Environmental Assessment of natural resource security impact from the long-term Syrian crisis and the JRP

    The project will conduct a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of security risks due to natural resource and environmental issues that are expected to converge with the Syria crisis and impact Jordan in the coming 5-10 years. For example, this includes climate risks, more frequent and severe droughts, and water insecurity, all of which could exacerbate social vulnerabilities.

    EIA and Screening of individual JRP projects

    The project will analyze significant JRP projects and integrate environmental sustainability measures, map environmental risks and rank their levels of significance. It will also categorize risks, and identify the level of screening and impact assessment required based on a tailored Environmental Screening Check-List. Environmental issues include risks to biodiversity and natural assets such as groundwater; risks to exacerbating energy security and opportunities to integrate sustainable energy solutions; and prevention of pollution and impacts on communities.

    Environmental Mitigation Plans for individual JRP projects

    The project will help define the scale and type of mitigation action required for the identified risks in the EIAs and work with individual JRP project groups to develop mitigation plans.

    A specialized EIA unit will be established within the JRP Secretariat to undertake the project. The unit will consider environmental risks, take into account any gender-specific risks from environmental impacts, and provide technical assistance for mitigating environmental risks. The team will promote EIA best practices and support long-term monitoring and evaluation of environmental safeguards in the process. This will help JRP investments comply with Jordan's EIA law, achieve the environmental safeguard policies of the international partners, and help prevent local community grievances.

    The activities present an opportunity to strengthen environmental governance in line with Jordan's EIA law. The project will provide top expertise to the government to conduct EIAs, and identify mitigation options that use of clean energy and resource conserving technologies. The project will tailor EIA methodologies for the unique context of responding to the Syria crisis in Jordan, and create a better understanding of the benefits from environmental sustainability to achieving long-term resilience of JRP responses and outputs.

    Impact

    Expected impacts include:

    • Ensure environmentally sustainable outcomes of investment projects across JRP sectors
    • Avoidance of adverse impacts to people and the environment
    • Minimize, mitigate and manage adverse impacts where avoidance is not possible
    • Strengthen stakeholder engagement and capacity for managing social and environmental risks

    With the expectation of a protracted crisis in Syria and its subsequent long-term impact on Jordan, effective and comprehensive environmental risk screening and impact assessment of significant projects across JRP sectors will ensure proper mitigation of adverse environmental impacts to decrease pressure on natural resources and support long-term resilience of JRP interventions. In undertaking EIAs, the project will also result in systems of indicators for effective monitoring of the environmental safeguards and performance of investments across all JRP sectors.

    18. Jordan's Environment Protection Law (EPL) no. 52/2006 and its Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulation no. 37/2006

    JPr7
    Green lights: Scaling-up energy efficient lighting in host communities

    The Project

    This project helps effected communities in Jordan cope with the increased energy demand from the influx of Syrian refugees by scaling-up the use of energy efficient lighting in host communities. In the medium-term, the project helps address Jordan's energy crisis and supports Jordan to continue its transformation toward an energy-efficient economy. Three aspects of the project are to:

    • Deploy one million energy efficient lights into buildings and residences in host communities
    • Enhance operations, maintenance, and training of local institutions including the safe disposal of old lighting systems
    • Build awareness of the benefits of energy efficiency for community resilience

    In the long-term, the project will reduce energy shortages and begin to reduce adverse social and economic impacts from rising energy insecurities.

    Budget 5,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    Jordan is one of the world's most energy insecure countries, importing about 97% of its energy needs. While Jordan has achieved many development goals, sustaining these results will increasingly depend on the transition to a sustainable energy future due to the heavy burden of energy costs on the Jordanian economy. Until 2009, the country relied on natural gas imported from Egypt for around 86% of its electricity generation. But due to a series of disruptions to this flow in recent years, the number has declined to 10% by 2014. In response, Jordan shifted to higher-cost heavy fuel oil and diesel imports, which has increased the cost of importing energy from 1.9 billion JD (USD$2.7 billion) in 2009 to 4.1 billion JD (USD$5.8 billion) in 2014.

    This energy insecurity crisis has been exacerbated by the impacts of the Syrian crisis, with the influx of refugees increasing the population of Jordan by about 15%. Furthermore about 75% of Syrians refugees reside in Jordan's cities and towns, adding pressures to residential energy consumption, including demands on the power grid and needs for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking, the only fuel derivative which remains subsidized by the government. Thus, total residential electricity consumption in Jordan, due to the presence of Syrian refugees, has risen significantly from 4926 gigawatt-hours in 2009 to 6265 gigawatt-hours in 2013. While not a primary driver of systemic energy sector challenges in Jordan, the Syrian crisis is an important factor.

    Given the centrality of energy to the public budget, the rising costs of energy in the State budget are decreasing fiscal space to respond to overall challenges, and could derail the development trajectory of the country unless urgent actions are taken. Securing a sustainable energy pathway and enacting sustainable energy measures within the crisis response is thus critical for achieving the goals of the Jordan Response Plan.

    Strategy

    The project will help scale up sustainable options to address Jordan's energy crisis in a way that offsets the incremental energy demand pressures triggered by the influx of Syrian refugees and forced migrants into Jordanian host communities. In addition to being a core part of the Jordan Response Plan to the Syria crisis, this goal also aligns with the National Energy Strategy and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP). Scaling-up of energy-efficient lights is a rapidly deployable and low-cost option.

    This project seeks to replace up to one million inefficient lights with new Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) in residences and buildings in host communities. This will potentially free up to 50 megawats of power in the short term, while also creating large energy subsidy savings. The project will help address the developmental risks from both the Syrian crisis and the energy crisis by helping accelerate Jordan's plans to scale-up green lights.

    Partnership Framework

    The project will bring together the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), inter-Ministry Energy Task Force, local host community partners, the National Energy Research Centre (NERC), CFL distribution companies (JEPCO, EDCO, IDECO) and local CFL suppliers. UNDP will bring its global expertise and networks in sustainable energy to the project. This is the UN's largest provider of country assistance in the areas of climate change and sustainable energy and it has a global portfolio of $1.2billion in these areas. UNDP will also engage partner UN agencies, such as the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) for project implementation support services.

    Activities

    The project takes a bold step to help instill energy efficiency in a rapid way to address energy shortages caused by a sudden population increase. Key activities include:

    Deploying one million energy efficient lights into buildings and residences in host communities

    • Through the project, energy efficient CFLs will be deployed to offset incremental energy pressures in host communities. CFLs are already produced and readily available locally in Jordan. The project will procure CFLs via national and local small-scale distributors. Initial activities will include rapid surveys and identification of specific residences and buildings to participate in the project and review plans with local distributors to rapidly scale up distribution. The project is expected to also reduce energy subsidy costs, so it will have a financial impact in addition to creating energy savings

    Operations, maintenance, and training of local institutions for acquisition and safe disposal of lighting systems

    • The project will help provide expertise for deployment of green lighting to specific types of building needs and categories of energy-users in host communities. The project will provide guidance and operational support for identification and procurement of CFL solutions from the market. It will also support engagement with and training of energy service companies in local communities to service residences and public buildings. A major emphasis will be placed on identifying systems for safe disposal of old lighting systems

    Advocacy and community awareness of the benefits of energy efficiency

    • The project will develop communication materials to build awareness around the benefits of integrating energy efficiency into crisis response, including acknowledgement of donor contributions. Information will be shared with communities, end-users, local officials, national partners and the international community. Dedicated communication products will be produced including short-films, knowledge products capturing results and success stories, and convening of stakeholder dialogues in order to help shift public purchasing patterns and move Jordan toward increased energy efficiency
    Impact

    With the expectation of a protracted crisis in Syria and its subsequent long-term impact on Jordan, effective deployment of energy efficiency solutions within crisis response can help decrease the fiscal impact of rising energy demands on Jordan's public budgets.

    Expected impacts include:

    • Decreasing adverse social and economic impacts from rising energy insecurity in local communities and the nation
    • Building energy demand management capacities that offset increased energy pressures caused by the influx of refugees in host communities
    • Increasing usage rates of compact fluorescent lamps and reduced energy bills in host community beneficiaries
    • Strengthening partner capacities to integrate energy efficiency measures into crisis response

    By supporting cost-effective and sustainable solutions, the project supports Jordan in its development trajectory.

    JPr8
    Improving the management of hazardous medical waste

    The Project

    The project will provide essential equipment needed to expand medical waste treatment capacities in Jordan and to improve capacity to dispose of substantial amounts of hazardous medical waste. Key elements of the project are to:

    • Provide equipment for medical waste collection, transfer and disposal
    • Transfer accumulated medical waste in Swaqa to sites abroad for disposal
    • Conduct training on medical waste management

    The key outcome is a reduction in health-related risks and costs by quickly addressing hazardous waste sites, which are in areas with high refugee populations.

    Budget 2,200,000 USD
    The Issue

    The influx of Syrian refugees in Jordan has been putting extra pressure on the management of solid wastes, especially medical waste. Expansion in provision of emergency health care services for an increasing population of the Syrian refugees has increased the volume of medical wastes generated considerably, which exposes serious health related impact risks on human environment. According to Swaqa hazardous landfill (run by MoE), the amounts of medical waste entered into the landfill since the crisis in Syria began has been increasing intensely. For instance, solid wastes quantities have increased from 2,024,832 tons in 2011 to 2,242,967, and 2,529,997 tons, in 2012, and to 2013 respectively.

    However, the treatment of hazardous waste is challenged by a lack of human capacities, equipment, databases and proper monitoring programme. Also, waste management operators face the challenge of transporting waste and lack treatment technologies. In addition, the emerging situation of an increasing influx of Syrian refugees in Jordan has further exacerbated the limited capacity of national agencies to manage the larger amounts of medical waste generated before the refugees arrived.

    With higher levels of waste across all waste types, it is essential to update the approach for hazardous solid waste management. This will minimize negative human health and environmental impacts and additional health care needs. It is urgent that action is taken immediately to address the issue of hazard waste treatment in order to avoid dangerous health consequences and costs.

    Strategy

    The objective of the project is to enhance national and local capacities to manage increased hazardous waste arising from Syrian refugees and to strengthen capacity in the medium term for resilient and sustainable responses to vulnerable ecosystems and communities affected by the Syrian crisis. The project will help achieve this goal through provision of equipment for collection, transfer and treatment of hazardous wastes, which will enhance the treatment capacities at source and landfills. Among different kinds of hazardous wastes, medical waste are a priority given the considerable increase caused by the influx of refugees.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP will jointly partner with UNEP, the MoE, and other key Government entities involved in hazardous and medical waste issues. The project will also largely engage the Ministry of Health as a key partner in addressing the source of medical waste. In an effort to dispose of the accumulated medical waste in Swaqa to a location outside the country, the project will engage an experienced company.

    The MoE governs waste through laws such as the environment protection legislation 52/2006. Directive 24 of that law, passed in 2005, addresses management, transportation and handling of harmful and hazardous substances, solid waste bylaws, medical waste management instructions, hazardous wastes management instructions, liquid acid batteries requirement and used oil regulation.

    Within its mandate, the MoE undertakes a set of interventions to implement solid waste management and recycling plan and program through: a) reduction of waste generation at source; b) developing of areas for recycling and reuse with comprehensive integrated system; c) improving of the disposal of solid waste in environmentally sound manner; d) establishing of treatment center of hazardous and medical wastes at the Swaqa hazardous landfill; e) increasing the percentage of medical wastes treated, and establishing and enforcing a documentation and information system for hazardous, medical and solid waste; f) completing the set of legislations to manage hazardous and medical wastes; and g) developing and executing of a national program to manage electronic wastes and implement the international conventions relate to hazardous and medical wastes. This project will support the MoE in its efforts to carry out its mandate and move Jordan on its development trajectory.

    Activities

    The project will provide essential equipment, training and expanded capacity to improve the management of hazardous wastes, particularly medical wastes, so as to minimize their impact risks on human health and environmental quality sustainably. Medical waste is a priority given the considerable increase caused by the influx of refugees. Key aspects of the project are to:

    Provide equipment for medical waste collection, transfer and disposal

    In order to offset the added amounts of medical waste because of the Syrian crisis, enhancing collection, transfer and disposal capacities in the country becomes essential to overcome the environmental risks of the medical waste. The project will assess the existing infrastructure capacities for medical wastes processing, and identify gaps, secure priority needs for equipment and infrastructure facilities

    Transfer accumulated medical waste in Swaqa to sites abroad for disposal

    Medical waste has been accumulated at the Swaqa dumping site as a result of the unusual and extra amounts of medical waste in the country. And, the Swaqa dumping site is at capacity. The project expands the site to manage disposal of hazardous wastes and accumulated medical waste in Swaqa to a location abroad in line with international treaties, particularly Basel convention. This project will assess existing waste levels and create an action plan to dispose of waste outside of Jordan

    Provide training on medical waste management

    The process of managing medical waste includes different institutions and staff, starting from the source of production, i.e. hospitals and health care centers, collectors, transferors and engineers responsible for treating the hazardous waste at the Swaqa dumping site. The project will design tailored training programme on medical waste management. In doing so, a rapid training-needs assessment should be conducted followed by extensive training session responding the actual needs

    Impact

    Expected impacts include:

    • Enhanced infrastructure capacities for medical waste collection, transfer and treatment
    • Mitigate serious environmental and health risks, caused by accumulation of large amounts of medical waste in Swaqa
    • Define and dispose of critical amounts of medical waste to sites outside the country
    • Enhance technical capacities of concerned authorities' staff in the area of medical waste management

    The project will provide essential equipment needed to enhances medical waste treatment capacities in the country, and enhance the absorptive capacities for substantial amounts of medical waste at the Swaqa landfill. The project will also mitigate the existing health related hazards and risks in Swaqa by immediate transfer and disposal of hazardous medical wastes in an environmentally sound manner. Moreover, the project will contribute to improving the capacities of relevant agencies to manage medical waste using safety and health best practices. This will significantly reduce staff vulnerability and exposure to any potential health and environmental risks.

    JPr9
    Building resilience through enhancing livelihoods and employment opportunities

    The Project

    This project addresses both the impact of the Syria crisis and the underlying vulnerabilities that are exacerbated by its impact. Immediate attention has been given to interventions that help vulnerable populations cope with the impact of the crisis through short-term employment creation in order to recover livelihoods and income-generation capacity and avoid further depletion of their assets. The project also includes interventions supporting recovery and leading to sustainable development with approaches that foster social cohesion.

    Key components of the project are to:

    • Improve social protection and poverty alleviation mechanism for vulnerable populations affected by the crisis
    • Create short-term employment opportunities for vulnerable households in host communities
    • Address the skills mismatch of youth and labour markets through enhancing active labour market initiatives
    • Support the establishment and growth of sustainable MSMEs
    • Facilitate participatory local economic development and public-private partnership at local levels
    Budget 24,950,000 USD
    The Issue

    The influx of Syrian refugees has resulted in rising poverty and lack of job opportunities, particularly in the governorates of Mafraq, Irbid, Zarqa and Amman. This mostly affects vulnerable Jordanian youth and women. It has also resulted in an increase in unemployment, reaching 30% for youth aged 15-24 years, and reaching twice as much unemployment for women compared to men (2014). The situation is worse in Mafraq governorate where unemployment increased from 10.4% in 2012 to 14% in 2013; with female unemployment reaching 22.2% in 2013.

    Competition with Jordanians in host communities over income and employment opportunities is particularly acute in the informal sector and in sectors such as construction, wholesale and retail, food services and agriculture as these are the sectors that Syrian refugees are most likely to be employed without work permits, earning lower wages than the national minimum wage (190 JD per month (approximately 270 USD) for Jordanians and 150 JD per month (approximately 210 USD) for migrant legal workers). In addition, the influx of refugees also resulted in a decline in wage rate in particular affecting unskilled and low earning Jordanians.

    Vulnerable Jordanian households are among the least resilient to shocks and stresses affecting their food and livelihood security as households have limited income earning opportunities and a high dependence on subsidies. A recent study carried out by UNWomen (2014) highlights that the increase in competition over livelihoods and job opportunities has particularly impacted young men and women-headed households in host communities. The National Aid Fund (NAF), which targets the poorest families of vulnerable Jordanians, estimates that the Syrian crisis has resulted in an additional 20,000 Jordanian families enrolled in cash assistance programmes, translating in an additional USD 4.23 million required annually.

    Several assessments indicate that Jordanian host communities perceive livelihoods and employment to be a source of tension, risking social cohesion between Jordanian and Syrian refugees in communities. In addition, the influx of the refugees is severely stressing basic infrastructure and services in host communities. Municipalities are unable to meet the basic social services needs of Syrians and Jordanians alike.

    It is equally important that support is aimed at offering durable solutions for improvement of social and public infrastructure; sustainable livelihoods creation; and supporting the government in delivering basic services through the participatory planning and implementation that links these efforts to local economic development.

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the project is to respond to urgent needs of vulnerable Jordanians to increase their livelihood capacities, while simultaneously linking it to more sustainable livelihoods creation and local economic recovery, and leading to sustainable development with priority given to approaches that foster social cohesion.

    The project follows the strategy of the Jordan Response Plan (JRP) to build resilience of host communities by addressing immediate needs of vulnerable households in the most refugee-impacted governorates (Amman, Irbid, Mafraq, Zarqa), with a specific attention to women and youth population. It directly addresses the key objectives of the JRP in sectors of basic needs (social protection), livelihoods and food security. The project will improve social protection and poverty alleviation mechanisms for vulnerable people affected by the crisis; and ensure that more and better job opportunities are created for the vulnerable young men and women; additionally, local economies of the most-affected areas will be revived through sustainable employment and income generation.

    Partnership Framework

    UNDP will partner with the NAF, municipalities in three northern governorates, businesses, dairy cooperatives and solid waste companies, CBOs and relevant ministries and departments on social protection, livelihoods and employment to create and implement the project. Partnerships with private sector businesses will also be established to facilitate job creation.

    Activities

    Improve social protection and poverty alleviation mechanisms for vulnerable populations affected by the crisis

    • UNDP will work with the National Aid Fund (NAF) and review its targeting criteria and mechanism in order to enhance its effectiveness, particularly with respect to the working poor who are often overlooked for cash assistance and often in competition with Syrians in the informal labour market. UNDP will complement and build capacity of the NAF by assisting the working poor who are not covered by current livelihoods recovery initiatives. The project will also help NAF by providing examples of exit/graduation programming to promote self-reliance of NAF beneficiaries

    Create short-term employment opportunities for vulnerable households in host communities

    • Short-term employment creation will be implemented in a form of cash for work through three phases, linking cash for work in exchange for community services over three months; with savings and sustainability of MSMEs

    Address the skills mismatch of youth and the labour market through enhancing active labour market initiatives

    • Create permanent employment opportunities through private sector demand-driven vocational training, job placement and apprenticeships while accommodating the graduates from the Cash for Work programme

    Support the establishment and growth of sustainable MSMEs

    • Facilitate business development in appropriate industries in each local area
    • Encourage Cash for Work beneficiaries who receive a monthly incentive for savings to utilize these savings as seed capital to establish microbusinesses

    Facilitate participatory local economic development and public-private partnership at local levels

    • Participants receive basic business training and advisory services to develop and run their business plans or career plans to proceed with vocational training. Successful business and career plans are financed by UNDP by multiplying the savings
    Impact

    The project directly benefits 2,000 vulnerable households through the cash for work activities. This includes unemployed and unskilled women and youth, of whom more than 50 per cent are women. The project will be implemented in the northern governorates (Mafraq, Irbid and Zarqa), targeting poverty pockets, with over 25% of the population living on less than 680 JOD per annum. The project also will create mid-to long-term employment opportunities, by supporting MSME development and growth.

    UNDP will maximize the impact through a comprehensive livelihoods recovery project with emergency livelihoods stabilization, basic social services, sustainable employment creation, enhanced capacity for service delivery, and local economic development. It envisions the following achievements by the end of 2015:

    • Immediate short-term employment opportunities created for 2,000 vulnerable population (50 % women)
    • At least 500 men and women transition from short-term employment to more sustainable employment to be self-reliant
    • At least 2,000 vulnerable people supported with MSMEs development and growth
    • 10,000 young men and women supported and employed directly and indirectly with active labour market initiatives
    • Access to developed and rehabilitated socio-economic infrastructure provided for more than 100,000 Jordanian and Syrian host community members
    • Value chain analysis on at least two commodities (dairy and municipal solid waste)
    • Value chain development on at least two commodities (dairy and municipal solid waste) conducted through clustering support including development of associations
    • At least two associations/cooperatives formulated with a focus on dairy products and informal waste pickers (solid waste management) to promote decent work condition, self-support mechanism and access to market

    JPr10
    Local development planning (including economic aspects) aligned with new context

    The Project

    This project will strengthen the relationship between the many stakeholders affected by the Syrian crisis, including local and state government, citizens, refugees and host communities through:

    • Municipal local development and local economic development plans that include community outreach
    • Basic IT equipment for governorate and municipal local development units (LDU) and training for directorates' staff
    • Community-led consultations to identify developmental challenges and rapid response interventions that foster social cohesion. Community Cohesion Grant Programs (CCGPs) that promote and fund community development activities to bring rapid results and enhance community confidence

    The project will improve social cohesion and economic development in 20 out of 50 high-need municipalities.

    Budget 6,500,000 USD
    The Issue

    Within the Jordan Response Plan (JRP) to the Syria Crisis, the Chapter on Resilience Responses identifies issues relating to local development planning as an integral part of the Local Governance and Municipal Services sector. The overall sector objective as per the JRP is to ensure that the Jordanian local governance system is responsive to host citizens, communities, and Syrian refugees' needs identified in most affected governorates. The JRP recognizes that all sectors need to give consideration to how their response interventions mitigate the prospect of increased tensions between Syrian refugees and their Jordanian hosts. In particular, two sectors of the JRP provided leadership and inclusion of specific outputs relating to social cohesion, including Local Governance/Municipal Services and Social Protection. Within Municipal Services, there is a clear commitment to civic and community participation and to ensure social accountability mechanisms are in place as capacities of Governorate and Municipal LDUs are strengthened.

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the project is to strengthen the relationship between the many stakeholders affected by the Syrian crisis, including local and state government, citizens, refugees and host communities. The project will also facilitate integration of local development priorities and new priorities since the arrival of Syrian refugees.

    The project will work with international, national and local NGOs, partner UN agencies, universities and research institutions to exchange learnings to promote empowerment, social cohesion, conflict prevention and reconciliation in the context of participation and engagement at municipal and community level.

    Partnership Framework

    The MoPIC will continue to be the main government counterpart, and will also be the overall coordinating authority of this project. Main partners include municipalities (LDUs), Joint Service Councils, the MoMA, the World Bank, ILO, and CSO.

    The MoMA will provide overall guidance, policy-setting and enforcement. The project will work with local authorities to plan, coordinate and implement interventions. The project will focus on three governorates, namely Irbid, Marfaq and Zarqa, with attention to geographic areas with medium and high level of societal tension.

    Activities

    The project activities are in three key areas:

    Municipal local development and local economic development (LED) Plans updated/developed/implemented, with community outreach

    • Rapid planning and coordination support will be provided to municipalities and communities in affected areas. Technical assistance will be provided to strengthen capacity for planning and implementation of municipal LDUs, with a particular focus on understanding pressing local needs to enhance the social contract with citizens
    • UNDP will support participating municipalities to undertake extensive community consultations with all key stakeholders using an inclusive and participatory approach, such as the Maps of Risks and Resources of Municipalities (MRR)
    • Through the Municipal Working groups, the process will engage all community representatives to identify and prioritize the socio-economic needs of the municipalities
    • Prioritized responses will be defined using local knowledge of the drivers of vulnerability, in the short medium and long term and the needs assessment will inform the creation of Local Development Plans, priorities and response

    Governorate and Municipal LDU and directorates staff trained, and received basic IT equipment

    • The project will support governorate and municipal LDUs and directorates through training and IT equipment to improve service delivery. This will help build social cohesion and strengthen local government structures for ongoing and potential future crises. Staff will acquire skills in community consultation, strategic planning, and prioritization of investment needs

    Community-led consultations conducted to assist in identifying developmental challenges and rapid response interventions that foster social cohesion. Community Cohesion Grant Programs (CCGPs) established to promote and fund community development activities that bring rapid results and enhance community confidence

    • A Conflict-related Development Analysis (CDA) will be conducted through the project to identify priority interventions to foster social cohesion nationwide, particularly the northern governorates. Through the project, UNDP will familiarize of stakeholders with the concept of social cohesion and support inclusion of social cohesion into national and local development plans
    • A Community Cohesion Grant Programs (CCGPs) will be established to promote and fund community and youth development activities that bring quick results and enhance community confidence
    • The community cohesion fund (CCF) will be used as "stimulus" for integrated social cohesion and LED, with a specific focus on projects carried out by women and youth
    • The intended beneficiaries for the community cohesion grant mechanism are people living in communities with existing or growing tensions. In order to raise awareness on social cohesion, a component of the project aims to engage with members of the Jordanian executive, legislature and bureaucracy to sensitize them to concepts of social cohesion as well as engaging and providing a forum for civil society organisations
    Impact

    Community-level development plans created in 20 out of 50 high-need municipalities, based on a better understanding of the evolving socio-economic needs and priorities of host communities identified through a consultative and participatory approach, including:

    • Multi-sectorial investment plans developed to respond to and implement the LED Plans and to facilitate public-private partnerships
    • Enhanced capacities of municipal LDU staff in planning, community outreach, and implementation of LED Plans
    • Responsive local governance system in place for better coordination and improved linkages between LDUs at the governorate and municipal levels
    • Analysis deepened through the CDA enabling better programme and policy development
    • Small grants funded through CCF used as "stimulus" for integrating social cohesion into LED while also giving (host) communities a sense of recognition that their issues are addressed
    • Dialogue and facilitation within selected communities in the northern governorates enhanced through trainings and specific small grants

    JPr11
    Solar aid: Expanding solar PV use in Jordanian communities hosting Syrian refugees

    The Project

    This project will help to scale up and accelerate responses to Jordan's energy crisis in a sustainable manner that alleviates incremental demand pressures from the Syria crisis. It will increase solar energy for electricity generation through solar photo-voltaic (PV) solutions as a means to offset the increased energy demand from the influx of Syrian refugees. And, it will offset serious socio-economic risks that could emerge in host communities from rising energy insecurity.

    Three key aspects of the project are:

    • Deploy solar photovoltaic systems in Jordan's communities hosting Syrian refugees
    • Establish operations, maintenance, and training of local institutions for solar energy
    • Build awareness and advocacy of the benefits of sustainable energy to the community

    Overall, the project will help decrease the fiscal impact of rising energy demands.

    Budget 28,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    Jordan is one of the world's most energy insecure countries, importing about 97% of its energy needs. While Jordan has achieved many development goals, sustaining these results will increasingly depend on the transition to a sustainable energy future due to the heavy burden of energy costs on the Jordanian economy. Until 2009, the country relied on natural gas imported from Egypt for around 86% of its electricity generation. But due to a series of disruptions to this flow in recent years, the number has declined to 10% by 2014. In response, Jordan shifted to higher-cost heavy fuel oil and diesel imports, which has increased the cost of importing energy from 1.9 billion JD (USD 2.7 billion) in 2009 to 4.1 billion JD (USD 5.8 billion) in 2014.

    Exacerbating this energy insecurity crisis has been the impact of the Syrian crisis, with the influx of refugees increasing the population of Jordan by about 15%. Furthermore about 75% of Syrians refugees reside in Jordan's cities and towns, adding pressure to residential energy consumption, including demands on the power grid and needs for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking (the only fuel derivative which remains subsidized by the government). Thus, total residential electricity consumption in Jordan due to Syrian refugees has risen significantly from 4926 gigawat-hours in 2009 to 6265 gigawat-hours in 2013. The consumption of LPG increased from 270,000 TOE in 2009 to 315,000 in 2014, adding a direct cost to the government of USD 6.3 million. While not a primary driver of systemic energy sector challenges in Jordan, the Syrian crisis is a significant exacerbating factor.

    Given the centrality of energy to the public budget, the rising costs of energy in the State budget are decreasing fiscal space to respond to overall challenges, and could derail the development trajectory of the country unless urgent actions are taken. Securing a sustainable energy pathway and enacting sustainable energy measures within crisis response is thus critical for achieving all goals of the Jordan Response Plan.

    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to scale up sustainable options to address Jordan's energy crisis in a way that offsets the increased energy demand triggered by the influx of Syrian refugees and forced migrants into Jordanian host communities. In addition, this goal aligns with the National Energy Strategy, which identifies renewable energy solutions as a cost effective solution to the country's energy crisis. Rapidly installing up to 5,000 solar water heaters in buildings and residences through the project, for example, could free up 10-15 megawats and reduce related electricity costs.

    The project will help address the developmental risks from both the Syrian crisis and the energy crisis and help accelerate Jordan's plans to scale-up solar power in the coming years. In particular the project would focus on bottom-up, decentralized solutions that help bolster energy supply for small businesses and households.

    Partnership Framework

    The project will bring together the MEMR, Inter-Ministry Energy Task Force, local host community partners, the NERC and local and international solar technology providers. UNDP will bring to the project its global expertise and south-south networks in sustainable energy, as the UN's largest provider of country assistance in the areas of climate change and sustainable energy and a global portfolio of $1.2 billion USD in these areas. UNDP will also engage partner UN agencies, such as the UNOPS for project implementation support services.

    Activities

    Deploy solar photovoltaic systems in Jordan's Communities Hosting Syrian Refugees

    Solar technology would be deployed to meet incremental energy supply needs of Jordanian host communities. This would include hundreds of bottom-up, decentralized solutions such as solar micro-grids and solar home systems (passive and photovoltaic) to be used by local host communities. Technology solutions will be adapted to the needs of small businesses, health clinics, schools, farmers and households within each host community. This will include use of two solar PV solutions: (i) deployment of solar water heaters (SWHs) and related roof-top solar applications or micro-grids as the most-effective means of reducing intensity of household energy use, and (ii) retrofitting of diesel generators into diesel-to-solar (D2S) hybrid units, to reduce costs and improve energy security, for small businesses, clinics, schools, farmers and households now relying solely on diesel for power generation, water pumping and other needs. Both sets of solutions will be made to particularly benefit low- and middle- income segments of host communities.

    Establish operations, maintenance, and training of local institutions for solar PV

    The project will help provide expertise to undertake technology needs assessments for tailoring of technology options with specific needs of each host community selected for deployment, and for the various categories of energy-users. The project will provide expertise and operational support for identification and procurement of technology solutions/or combinations of options from the market, for solar water heaters, solar photo-voltaic and retrofitted diesel-hybrid systems tracks of activities as noted above. It will also support engagement with and training of energy service companies in local communities to ensure local business ecosystems are generated to service small businesses, clinics, schools, farmers and households benefiting from the solar technologies under the project.

    Build awareness and advocacy of the benefits of sustainable energy to communities

    The project will also develop communication materials and build awareness on the benefits of integrating sustainable energy into the crisis response, including acknowledgement of donor contributions. This will include raising awareness on public benefits of JRP solar solutions among community end-users, local officials, national partners and the international community. In addition, dedicated communication products including short-films, knowledge products capturing results and success stories, and convening of stakeholder dialogues will be produced.

    Impact

    Expected impacts include:

    • New energy supply capacities that offset of increased energy demand caused by the influx of refugees in host communities
    • Reduced costs/energy bills and increased energy security in host community beneficiaries
    • Increased usage rates of solar water heaters and significant share of diesel generators with hybrid solar capacity integrated
    • Avoidance of adverse social and economic impacts from rising energy insecurity in local communities and the nation
    • Partner capacities for mainstreaming sustainable energy solutions into crisis response strengthened

    End of this country's projects. Select another?

    Turkey

    Select a programme:

    • TPr1Strengthening social cohesion in host communities
    • TPr2Effective urban waste and sewage management
    • TPr3Establishment and operationalization of a vocational training and skills development centre for Syrians under temporary protection in Åžanliurfa
    • TPr4Establishment and operationalization of grape processing, agro-food facilities in Kilis and Gaziantep

    TPr1
    Strengthening social cohesion in host communities

    The Project

    This project will improve the delivery of municipal public services in host communities with high numbers of Syrians in order to strengthen social cohesion. It will do so by creating quick, small-scale investments in social spaces and municipal service facilities. More specifically, the project will build social recreation areas and an animal shelter in the Şanlıurfa municipality.

    Key components of the project are to:

    • Respond to the urgent need of social zones for host communities and non-camp Syrian population
    • Reduce public health risks by improving animal shelter facilities and services
    • Ensure municipalities in the Şanlıurfa province have sustainable infrastructure and practices to deliver the above services
    Budget 3,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    Local service providers are overstretched with the increased number of inhabitants living within Şanlıurfa province, bordering Syria. According to the data obtained from the report "Effects of the Syrian Refugees on Turkey (ORSAM, Jan 2015)19," there are 230,000 registered Syrian individuals living in Şanlıurfa province.

    The impact of the Syrian influx is felt primarily in the south and south-eastern provinces and districts of Turkey, particularly Şanlıurfa which hosts large numbers of Syrians. Continuous pressure on municipalities to deliver services has worsened by their limited technical capacities and their lack of funding to ensure service delivery and to maintain property and equipment.

    Municipal budgets from the central government are allocated mainly on the basis of registered population and land size, which corresponds to the citizens of the Turkish Republic. This means that the additional influx of the Syrian population does not lead to increased budgets for municipalities to respond to the increased service demand. Additional resources are necessary.

    The influx of Syrians as well as the overall impact of the conflict in Syria is placing a considerable burden on the local systems in many aspects of municipal services such as maintenance of recreational areas and public health services. Pressure on basic public services is growing dangerously. As Syrians are granted access to public services, the pressure on water and electricity supply, education, health, sanitation and solid waste management has drastically increased where Syrians have settled. Municipalities are finding it difficult to address increased needs.

    Secondly, refugees heavily use the existing public spaces (parks and recreational areas), particularly during summer period. As a result, lack of recreational areas adds to the existing tension among the host communities.

    Thirdly, municipalities are experiencing problems with stray animals. The municipalities are finding it difficult to keep stray animals under control in the cities after the heavy Syrian influx. The problem is increasingly threatening public health, particularly through the spread of diseases, which are being spread by street animals. For example Şanlıurfa Municipality has an animal shelter established in 2004 with a capacity of 250 dogs and 30 cats. This is already insufficient for the need. Şanlıurfa Municipality's area of responsibility was expanded to districts due to the recent change of municipal services, by a new regulation passed in 2014. After heavy Syrian influx, the shelter services are at capacity like many other Municipal services. Şanlıurfa Municipality has plans to build a new facility with an animal capacity of 2,000 and an available land of 100,000 square metres for a new stray animal facility.

    Strategy

    The goal of this project is to strengthen social cohesion at the local level, in provinces with a high influx of Syrians. The strategy is to make quick, small-scale investments to strengthen the municipal capacities of public health services and to create public spaces. Interventions will urgently set up needed recreational areas such as multifunctional parks and urban parks. There is also a need for improved municipal public health related facilities including an animal shelter. Based on an assessment and site visits, these municipal service enhancements will be implemented to improve the experience of two communities living together.

    Partnership Framework

    From previous work in Sanliurfa and Gaziantep provinces (in economic development), UNDP has built strong relationships with local government partners including the Municipality of Şanlıurfa. The Municipality of Şanlıurfa will implement the first project and UNDP will provide technical support for implementation. Other municipalities are expected to carry out similar projects to improve delivery of public services.

    Activities

    This project will take quick actions that address critical social cohesion and infrastructure problems. The project will:

    • Respond to the urgent need for social zones for host communities and non-camp Syrian population
    • Support the development of an improved urban park, which includes social living zones and a community center for host communities
    • Establish new animal barns and an animal rehabilitation center, hence addressing a public health risk
    • Support the Şanlıurfa Municipality to deliver essential municipal services by constructing an animal shelter together with animal rehabilitation center
    • Strengthen infrastructure and service delivery capacity of the municipality by building skills in planning, coordination and project implementation
    Impact

    This project will improve municipal service delivery capacity in the Şanlıurfa province. It will strengthen skills and resources in planning, coordination and implementation of different stages of urban park concepts and animal shelters. Ultimately, the project will reduce social tensions and increase social cohesion.

    19. Effects of the Syrian Refugees on Turkey, (page 22, III.b) (ORSAM, Jan 2015) [Source]

    TPr2
    Effective urban waste and sewage management

    The Project

    This project will improve the delivery of municipal services for host communities and Syrian refugees in and out of camps. It will do this by increasing the municipalities' capacities for solid waste and sewage management in camp and non-camp settings by purchasing new equipment, building infrastructure in selected municipalities/camps and providing technical assistance.

    The main components of the project are to:

    • Reduce pressure on local systems by creating local waste management solutions, primarily in camp settings
    • Rehabilitate landfill sites, provide sewage management vehicles, and address waste management issues in non-camp settings
    • Set up new and innovative models for waste management

    Ultimately, the project will improve health conditions and living standards for host communities and Syrians in the border region, leading to decreased tension

    Budget 25,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    The impact of the Syrian influx is felt primarily in the south and south-eastern provinces and districts of Turkey, particularly in Kilis, Gaziantep and Şanlıurfa. It is also spreading to other provinces such as Batman, Mardin and Kahramanmaras. This is increasing commodity prices and demand for public services (health, education, municipal and social services). Municipalities have insufficient technical capacities and lack the equipment and machinery necessary to ensure the delivery of services and maintain their existing property and equipment.

    Solid waste and sewage sourcing from camp and non-camp population is reducing the life of current facilities and exacerbating existing vulnerabilities. As Syrians are granted access to basic public services, the pressure on water and electricity supply, education, health, sanitation and solid waste management, has drastically increased where Syrians have settled.

    Camps are producing massive amount of waste and sewage that local unit of the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey (AFAD - Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi Başkanlığı), responsible for the camp management, are not able to cope with. Many of the camps have inadequate sewage systems so sewage is discharged to nearby streams or existing sewage lines where capacity has not been designed for the additional sewage.

    An example of solid waste management can easily be observed in Kilis province. In 2013, Kilis municipality completed a sanitary landfill site. The original facility had been designed in 2008 to serve 196,575 people and was deemed sufficient until 2025. The landfill project was designed based on predicted population increases, land availability and amount of solid waste accumulation. The Syrian influx has led the landfill to be near capacity in a much shorter timeframe.

    As of 2014, Kilis province has a native population of 128,781 (excluding Syrians) with an average population increase of 1.2% percent per annum between 2007 and 2014. The landfill design was made based on a 2% annual population increase of population. However, population has increased by 78% in the small border province, now home to 100,000 refugees in urban and camp settings. The continued influx of Syrians is placing a considerable burden on local systems such as solid waste collecting and sewage management.

    Funding to improve waste management (landfill, facilities and equipment) is not available through the Turkish municipal budget system, which allocates monies on the basis of registered Turkish citizens and land size. The influx Syrians is not factored in to increase budgets of municipalities to allow them to respond to the increased service demand. Other sources of funding are needed.

    Strategy

    The overall objective of the programme is to strengthen the resilience and absorption capacity of Turkish communities in the Southern border areas in provinces including Kilis, Sanliurfa and Gaziantep because they have the largest number Syrians, relative to their population.

    UNDP has three key strategies for interventions:

    • Reduce pressure on local systems by decreasing waste that needs to be managed by the municipalities. Create local waste management solutions, primarily in camp settings
    • Strengthen the capacity of local authorities and municipalities by providing infrastructure and technical assistance. Rehabilitate landfill sites, provide urban waste and sewage management vehicles, address other critical, related municipal service needs, primarily in non-camp settings
    • Set up new and innovative models for waste management and municipal service provisions in the context of crisis
    Partnership Framework

    The main local partners for this activity are the municipalities as they are responsible for provision of waste management services and AFAD. These are the responsible parties for management of camps and for in-camp interventions. It is proposed that the pilot implementations for Municipal capacity building and in camp interventions will be launched in three provinces including Kilis, Şanlıurfa and Gaziantep.

    The Project will implement its activities primarily through existing/relevant local Government structures, including Municipalities. AFAD will provide the overall coordination across the relevant components of the project. UNDP will provide technical support for implementation and assist by recruiting staff for overall planning, implementation and project monitoring.

    In working with partners so far on the project, UNDP has found the need for stronger infrastructure and service delivery capacity for local authorities. The consultations held at the central level with AFAD management, and at the local level with local AFAD focal points, municipality representatives have highlighted the need for more sustainable practices for waste and sewage management to address the additional waste and extra sewage generated from Syrians.

    Activities

    The activities of this programme are modeled after the project, "Mitigating the Impact of the Syrian Crisis on Host Communities in Southeast Anatolia Region," which was implemented jointly with AFAD and the Regional Development Administration (GAP RDA - Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi Regional Development Administration) in 2014. The project aimed at increased municipal service and emergency response capacity targeting both host communities and Syrians as well as increased employment opportunities in Southeast Anatolia.

    This project will improve municipal service delivery capacity in the Şanlıurfa province. It will strengthen skills and resources in planning, coordination and implementation of different stages of urban park concepts and animal shelters. Ultimately, the project will reduce social tensions and increase social cohesion.

    Based on a needs assessment and considering the model project from Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey, this project will address the capacity deficiencies in urban and camp waste management and sewage interventions. Key activities include:

    • In-camp Interventions
      • Strengthen capacity of camp-based sewage and solid waste management systems
      • Improve capacity of local AFAD units on in camp solid waste and sewage management by establishing solid waste and sewage management facilities
    • Non-camp Interventions
      • Strengthen waste management capacity by responding to local infrastructure needs (including landfill sites) and sewage and waste vehicles
      • Conduct further needs assessment to plan detailed implementation
      • Improve service delivery in solid waste management through planning, equipment and technology
    Impact

    The proposed interventions positively impact on both Syrians and host communities by expanding waste management service delivery capacity of the local waste management authorities. Interventions in camp settings will improve living conditions for Syrian communities hosted in camps and interventions at non-camp settings will decrease tensions and improve living standards of Turkish and Syrian urban residents.

    TPr3
    Establishment and operationalization of a vocational training and skills development centre for Syrians under temporary protection in Şanliurfa

    The Project

    This project will establish a full-scale vocational training and skills building centre in Sanliurfa to support the agriculture, industry and service sectors. Sanliurfa has been selected as the site for the centre because this province has the second highest number of Syrian refugees in Southeast Anatolia, and Sanliurfa is a driving force the regional economy.

    Key aspects of the project are to:

    • Understand where there is demand for labor in regional industries
    • Establish an industrial vocational training and technical skills development center tailored to the needs of the region and and skills of Syrian refugees

    Overall the project will help build the local economy, strengthen skills of refugees and stabilize the regional economy. The project will also reduce tensions between refugees and local residents due to competition for jobs and will help the region benefit from the influx of Syrians.

    Budget 3,500,000 USD
    The Issue

    Syrian crisis had a significant impact on the economy and social issues in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Most effected are the border provinces of Gaziantep, Kilis and Sanliurfa. Syrian refugees contribute significantly to the local and national economy. The Syrian labour force is increasingly used in the industry, agriculture and small business sectors, sometimes illegally and below market rates. This situation creates concerns not only regarding unfair competition in the labour market, but also in unacceptable work environments, lack of regulation of employment conditions, and exploitation of a crisis situation within the informal economy. This competition for employment results in tension between Syrian and host communities. Syrians are blamed for taking jobs that Turkish citizens normally engage in, and Turkish businesses are blamed for exploiting Syrians as inexpensive and informal labour force.

    There is also an undeniable benefit of the crisis on the local economy as well. Most of the aid distributed in the camps is supplied through the local companies. Similarly, international organizations extending cross-border humanitarian assistance to Syria also supply from local firms, creating opportunities for agricultural, agro-business and textile sectors. While a significant amount of small business owners exist in the region, most of them are unregistered, catering mainly for the Syrian residents in Turkey. Local business people address to potential expansion of the economy building on the business networks of Syrian investors in Turkey, and further opportunities remain to be exploited through partnerships and business development in Turkey. Hence, with a good strategy and service provision capacity, this opportunity of business expansion and other existing gaps in labour market can be utilized for the benefit of both the Syrian refugees and host communities.

    Through the newly adopted temporary protection (TP) regulation, Syrians will be granted easier access to work with the understanding that the Syrian refugees will not have a chance to return to their countries in the short-term, and will be able to find ways to earn a decent living in Turkey. The TP regulation stipulates that employment services will be provided for the people under temporary protection, so the Government of Turkey, through its relevant line ministries, is working on laying out the framework of services available for the Syrians under TP. Legislation has identified details of work permits and employment services and is expected to be passed by the Council of Ministers. Subsequently, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, government and other local and central actors will provide employment services tailored to the current situation, addressing all impacted communities including the refugees.

    Anticipating the change in legislation, UNDP in collaboration with UNHCR conducted a survey on the skills and competencies of 4,000 Syrians under temporary protection in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Findings in the March 2015 survey found that agriculture, service and industrial sectors are the main areas in which the Syrians under temporary protection have competencies. Based on the findings, a skills and competency development project was immediately developed for Gaziantep province and will be launched in the second half of 2015.

    Strategy

    The goal of this project is to strengthen livelihoods in the impacted communities by strengthening refugees' employability and by connect refugees to increased employment opportunities. It builds on existing programmes in the Southeast Anatolia Region, with a focus on economic development, entrepreneurship, skills development, and industry competitiveness.

    The key strategy for Şanlıurfa province is to establish a vocational training center that is tailored to the needs of the local industrial, service and agricultural sectors and that utilizes the skills of Syrian refugees. The project is in full partnership and cost sharing with local partners.

    Partnership Framework

    The project will be implemented in collaboration with the Southeast Anatolia Regional Development Administration, Şanlıurfa Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Sanliurfa Organized Industrial Zone and Sanliurfa Governorate. The project will also take overall guidance of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security and work with Ministry of Education, Occupational Competency Board on vocational training issues. Regionally, technical support will be provided by the regional development agency, the provincial directorate of the national employment agency under the overall coordination of the GAP RDA, responsible for regional economic development of the Southeast Anatolia Region. UNDP will provide technical support for implementation and help recruit staff for overall planning, implementation and project monitoring.

    Activities

    The project will establish a vocational training centre and also better understand the demand for labor in order to develop skills training in areas most useful for the local economy. Key activities are to:

    Understand demand for labor in industrial sectors

    • Ensure plans and policies developed by the regional (GAP RDA Action Plan), sub-regional (İpekyolu Development Agency) and/or provincial (chambers) institutions are considered
    • Collaborate with the Şanlıurfa Chamber of Industry and Trade, provincial directorates of the national small and medium enterprise agency and the National Employment Agency to integrate "demand for labor" and Syrian skills assessments conducted by UNDP and other institutions (i.e. National Employment Agency (İŞKUR - İşgücü taleplerini karşılamakla görevli kurumun), TUİK, GAP RDA, development agencies, and local chambers of commerce)
    • Compile of the findings of the assessments and prioritize the local needs

    Establish an industrial vocational training and technical skills development center

    • Develop a business model and business plan for the centre
    • Identify of vocational training and technical skill programmes using findings from provincial level assessments
    • Map locally available industrial sector vocational training and technical skills programmes with formally certified modules
    • For non-existing programmes, develop and certify training modules, working with the Ministry of Education and Occupational Competency Board
    • Identify, mobilize and train trainers for the programmes
    • Identify participants through open call for applications publicized both in camps and non-camp urban districts
    • Closely follow up on the construction of the Centre, coordinated by Gaziantep Chamber of Industry
    • Procure supplies, equipment and machinery and ensure facilities are up to standard (training halls, computer labs, etc.)
    • Develop strategic plans and action plans by industry sector to match and place graduates with the interested businesses
    Impact

    The full scale vocational training and skills building centre, serving Syrians under temporary protection in Sanliurfa, will result in:

    • 1000 Syrians benefitted from vocational training in the industrial sector
    • 250 Syrians placed in local industries
    • 1000 Syrians benefitted from vocational education and training in the service sector
    • 1000 Syrians benefitted from vocational education and training in the agricultural sector

    The centre will strengthen employment services that cater to the needs of the local economy while it is strengthening skills of refugees. This will reduce tensions between refugees and local residents (due to competition for jobs) and stabilize the regional economy by formalizing the informal economy. The project will help the region benefit from the influx of Syrians and see it as having a positive impact economically.

    TPr4
    Establishment and operationalization of grape processing, agro-food facilities in Kilis and Gaziantep

    The Project

    This project establishes and operationalizes two grape processing, agro-food facilities in Kilis and Gaziantep. It will help the grape processing industry increase its competitiveness in the two provinces. It will also create employment opportunities for the residents of these provinces, including the Syrians, under temporary protection. Key aspects of the project are to:

    • Develop agricultural infrastructure in the provinces
    • Carry out effective planning and marketing
    • Build capacity for effective production management

    The integrated grape processing facilities, near vineyards and accessible to markets, will create jobs in the short-term and will dramatically strengthen the grape processing industry in the long-term, positively impacting the local economy.

    Budget 5,000,000 USD
    The Issue

    The agro-food industry has great potential to revive the economy in Kilis and Gaziantep and has been included in economic development plans. Also, it is one of the leading industries emphasized in both the 2014-2018 action plans of GAP RDA and two regional development agency plans (Karacadağ, Dicle and İpekyolu). The Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey is envisaged to be a "food base," in which high quality and high added value products are produced, processed and supplied to both domestic and global markets, including Middle Eastern markets.

    In early 2015, UNDP Turkey, in collaboration with UNHCR, mapped skills of refugees and found that the agriculture sector and agro-food industry were among the highest potential local economic activities in which Syrians under temporary protection are competent and/or willing to work. The grape industry was selected for the project because they are widely grown in Kilis and Gaziantep (Islahiye District), the leading host communities in the Southeast Anatolia region. Grapes were also identified in the government's competitiveness agenda as a strategic regional product.

    In Kilis, grapes are the number two agricultural product, second only to olives. Grapes are produced by 120 members of Kilis Grape Producers Cooperative, including 90 women on 30 million square metres in Kilis. The industry was established in 2008 and annual production is approximately 30,000 tons per year. Although organized institutional grape-production exists in Kilis, the competitiveness of this economic activity is quite low. This is due to the lack of physical infrastructure (i.e. professional processing facilities, packaging and storage units) as well as inaccessibility to markets. Potential investment areas in Kilis are: grape drying, processing, packaging and product diversification (grape pulp, grape dessert).

    In the Gaziantep Islahiye district, grapes are produced on 15,000 dunam (15 million square metres) of land by Gaziantep Grape Producers Union, which was established in 1994 and is currently composed of 300 members. Annual production is approximately 20,000 tons. As in Kilis, the competitiveness of grape industry in Gaziantep is impeded by lack of infrastructure and inaccessibility to markets. Establishment of pre-processing and packaging units along with grape pressing, pasteurization, and cold storage units would strengthen the industry.

    Similar projects in the olive industry, with support from the GAP RDA, UNHCR and UNDP have been successful. Kilis Organic Olive Producers Union established an organic olive oil facility in 2014, which processes, packages and stores the olives collected by local olive growers from their fields. Members of the Union bring their olives to the facility in which 80 tons of organic olive oil can be produced per day. The new organic olive oil facility started production in December 2014 and lessens the impact of the Syrian crises on the hosting region. Kilis organic olive oil facility is a success story for enhancing livelihoods and employability opportunites for the host communities and the Syrians under temporary protection. We expect similar success with the grape industry.

    Strategy

    The ultimate goal of the project is to strengthen the grape production industry while creating jobs for Syrians under temporary protection. Key strategies are to increase production and processing capacities as well as the competitiveness of local products. The two project sites are designed as prototypes so we can learn what works well and build that expertise into future projects in Turkey.

    UNDP will collaborate with local economic development, employment and research institutions to carry out the grape industry improvement, entrepreneurial capacities, vocational skills and knowledge sharing. To ensure economies of scale, the project will concentrate efforts with organized producers/processors such as the unions and cooperatives.

    The project will complement and build on ongoing activities of UNDP Turkey particularly on local economic development, taking into account the current situation in the region.

    Partnership Framework

    The project will be implemented in collaboration with the Southeast Anatolia Regional Development Administration and local cooperatives and unions operating in Kilis and Gaziantep. Additionally, UNDP will work with government agencies, provincial and local directorates including: Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization (KOSGEB - Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli İşletmeleri Geliştirme ve Destekleme İdaresi Başkanlığı), İŞKUR, and regional/local academic institutions (universities, research institutions). UNDP will provide technical support for implementation and will recruit staff for overall planning, implementation and project monitoring.

    Activities

    Building on lessons learned in the olive industry project, activities are to:

    • Establish small-scale agricultural infrastructure at the farm level
    • Develop business models and business plans
    • Construct processing facilities
    • Procure packaging and storage units
    • Carry out effective marketing, branding, product diversification, production management, and stock management
    • Build capacity through vocational training and work-skills training
    Impact

    The Project will establish integrated grape processing facilities in Gaziantep and Kilis. Approximately 120 households of host communities in Kilis will directly benefit from the agro-food facility there and to be established in Kilis, whereas 300 households will directly be affected by the agro-food facility in Gaziantep. Jobs will be created for 250 Syrians under temporary protection in Kilis and Gaziantep. These Syrians will bring their previous expertise in agriculture to local industry as well as their business contacts and networks.

    Lessons learned from these two pilot programmes will also be shared and applied in this and other economic development work, further strengthening the region. In the long-term, the grape production industry will be strengthened considerably, having a multiplicative economic impact.

    Effects of the Syrian Refugees on Turkey, (page 22, III.b) (ORSAM, Jan 2015) [Source]

    End of this country's projects. Select another?

    Egypt

    Select a programme:

    • EPr1Employment creation in innovative public work programs: Phase III

    EPr1
    Employment creation in innovative public work programs: Phase III

    The Project

    This project implements a public works programme for labour-intensive infrastructure and social services projects. It helps expand and diversify employment opportunities for both young men and women, while at the same time infusing infrastructure and service investments necessary to boost local economic development in host communities with high concentration of Syrian refugees. It will also enhance the vocational and entrepreneurship skills of youth and support micro- and small-businesses in host communities through various business training and development services.

    • Create short- to mid-term emergency employment for mainly youth in community infrastructure and social services projects in host communities of Syrian refugees
    • Provide vocational and entrepreneurship skills training and business development services in host communities
    Budget 16,000,000 USD

    The project responds to the urgent need to create employment opportunities and to build the capacities and skills of unemployed youth (18-29 years of age) and women that has been affected by the increased influx of refugees to Egypt since 2013. The project will specifically target host communities of Syrian refugees, which are mostly concentrated in urban and peri-urban districts of Giza, Greater Cairo, Alexandria and Qalyubia. It will be based on the Rapid Stress Index identifying the most vulnerable districts throughout Egypt.

    The Issue

    As of late 2014, Egypt is host to some 140,000 registered Syrian refugees. While the influx of refugees has been small compared to the numbers of refugees in other countries, refugees in Egypt are concentrated mostly in a few communities in densely populated urban areas, precisely where local infrastructure, job markets and public services are already strained. This great increase in demand for basic services has burdened local and national systems, threatening development gains. Although the Egyptian government has extended health and education services to Syrian refugees free of charge, just as Egyptian citizens enjoy, it has not yet developed a national response plan for the refugee issue.

    Egypt needs particular support for the livelihoods sector, as some 26.3 percent of Egypt's population lives below the national poverty line and the unemployment rate stands at 12.9 percent (Jan 2015). With the prolongation of the Syrian conflict, about 50 percent of refugee households, which predominately rely on past savings, assets and loans, will gradually face serious shortages of income and Syrian refugees and Egyptian local host communities could run the risk of sliding into poverty in the coming years.

    Particularly concerning is the fact that many out-of-school youth risk ending up in low-paying, unstable and potentially dangerous jobs with little hope of escaping poverty - if they can find employment at all. The unemployment rate among the youth aged 20 to 24 years exceeds 39%, while unemployment among females, as high as 25%, is more than double that for males (9.9%). The lack of education, skills, networks and empowerment is a major challenge preventing refugee and Egyptian youth, especially women and girls, from reaching safe and stable employment and being protected from violence, abuse and exploitation.

    Strategy

    Building upon the successful experience of implementing the cash-for-works model in the poorest villages throughout Egypt since 2012, the project aims to scale up efforts to generate short- to mid-term emergency employment opportunities, particularly for youth and women, through public works (labour-intensive infrastructure and social service projects) targeting the host communities of Syrian refugees.

    Given the gender dimension of unemployment in Egypt, labour-intensive public works projects, which traditionally generate jobs for men, will be complemented by social services projects, which create a majority of jobs for women. The project will ensure that such interventions will contribute meaningfully to the longer-term process of socioeconomic development of localities affected by the refugee crisis and build skills and capacities of youth, both men and women. The project not only provides income to the poor and vulnerable but also provides them with durable community infrastructures and public services that provides the opportunity for economic and social development.

    The Social Fund for Development (SFD) will use local knowledge and expertise to plan and implement its public works and social services projects. Thus, such projects have a multiplier effect and help local markets to revive. The specific infrastructure and services projects will be based on rapid needs assessments and consultations with local public and civil society institutions. The involvement of local institutions in implementation will contribute to local capacity building. To ensure the successful implementation and to scale its job creation efforts, the project will build on the achievements and lessons learned of past and on-going public works projects of the SFD that have been conducted since 2012.

    The priority focus of the emergency public works programme is to provide social protection to unskilled poor, youth and women by creating short- to mid-term jobs, while at the same time enhancing the community infrastructure and services. While being an emergency type of short-term relief programme, it allows locally jobless youth to gain basic job skills and supports them in creating linkages with local contractors and NGOs, which then has the potential to lead to future opportunities for long-term employment. Similarly, the women involved in the social work projects also gain training and skills working with NGOs, which in return has the potential to help them to find jobs later in their own localities.

    Building on the public works project, UNDP in partnership with the SFD will subsequently provide vocational and entrepreneurship training and services to micro- and small-businesses in host communities affected by the Syrian refugee crisis. These trainings and services will target mainly youth and women, who have been vulnerable to the economic downturn and influx of refugees. The project will attempt to link beneficiaries of the short-term public works project to more sustainable employment in the long-term by building the capacity of the youth and women and enhancing the economic conditions in the local communities. The project will build on SFD's experience in skills development and providing financial and non-financial services to micro- and small-businesses throughout Egypt.

    Partnership Framework

    The Government of Egypt, UNDP and SFD, a long-term partner of UNDP, consider tackling youth unemployment to be a top priority for host communities with high concentration of Syrian refugees. Promoting employment, enhancing skills and providing community infrastructure and services will also contribute to the overall social cohesion of the impacted communities and will have direct positive impact by benefiting the most vulnerable and marginalized citizens through the provision of income and by increasing future employability prospects.

    UNDP will partner with SFD, who has the needed capacity to support the launch and management of the described scope of work, as proven in its long-term partnership in micro- and small-business promotion and public works projects.

    Activities

    The two-part project will focus on implementing its public works and skills and business development approach in host communities of Syrian refugees. The primary focus will be to implement the public works project for emergency social protection and enhanced local services and infrastructure. The project will subsequently carry out the second component of skills and business development to promote economic development and resilience in the long-term. Create short- to mid-term emergency employment for mainly youth in infrastructure and social services in host communities of Syrian refugees.

    • Carry out labour-intensive public works projects focusing on the construction of community infrastructure and social services, based on rapid needs assessments and consultations of local stakeholders and beneficiaries
    • Jobs generated will mainly target local unemployed semi-skilled and unskilled youth in host communities affected by the influx of refugees. The project aims to create up to 500,000 workdays in infrastructure and services projects. The majority of the services projects will target young women in the host communities. Employment will generally be from 3 to 6 months and will receive payments based on the market rate
    • Projects will be designed to upgrade community infrastructures such as schools, community centres, market places, energy grid and provide social services such as health awareness campaigns and waste management services based on the specific needs of the host communities. The created infrastructure and services will be designed to further benefit the community in its long-term social and economic development

    Provide vocational and entrepreneurship skills training and business development services in host communities.

    • Vocational and entrepreneurship skills training for mainly youth and women in host communities to enhance opportunities of long-term employment and business development. The courses will be based on market needs and will cooperate with private sector partners to bridge the market divide
    • Business development services will target micro- and small-businesses to promote firm growth and employment. It will provide professional business management consulting in areas of finance, marketing, human resources and growth. The project will also explore linkages with SFD's financial services, which provides loans to micro- and small-businesses throughout Egypt
    • The project will also work to strengthen the capacities of affected local government departments to improve their targeting and monitoring of the vulnerable population and to provide tailored services in areas of skills development, economic empowerment and overall social services in the host communities of Syrian refugees
    Impact

    Since 2012, UNDP in partnership with SFD has created a total of 605,549 workdays in public works by implementing community infrastructure and social service projects in the poorest districts throughout Egypt. The project not only created short term jobs but benefits the general population by providing better infrastructure (water networks, roads, public marketplace, etc.) and social services (health, environment, education, etc.) to vulnerable local communities, which are seen to have strong positive impact in the long-term.

    Furthermore, in 2014, SFD supported 178,253 micro- and small-enterprises by disbursing a total of 3 billion EGP in loans and creating an estimate of 217,991 jobs. Some 44% of the lending were for female-owned businesses. It has also provided business development services and training to local business combined with its financial support.

    The Project will build on these achievements and experiences to provide skills and jobs targeting the vulnerable populations in the host communities of Syrian refugees.

    End of this country's projects. Select another?

    Iraq

    Select a programme:

    • IPr1Enhanced protection of Syrian refugee women, girls and boys against SGBV
    • IPr2Enhanced basic public services and economic opportunities for Syrian refugees and host communities

    IPr1
    Enhanced protection of Syrian refugee women, girls and boys against SGBV

    The Project

    This project expands Vulnerability Monitoring and Legal Aid Centres (VMLAC) in refugee camps and urban areas in Erbil, Dohuk, and Sulaimania in order to help the affected populations cope with and recover from difficult situations through protection and empowerment of refugee women, girls and boys against sexual and other forms of gender-based violence (SGBV). Key aspects of the project are to expand and streamline legal and vulnerability monitoring centres in refugee camps and to provide the same service to refugees living outside of camps through mobile outreach. The project strengthens the rule of law and improves protection and access to justice to refugees in camps and urban areas.

    Budget 800,000 USD
    The Issue

    As armed conflicts continue to escalate in Iraq, negative economic and security impacts are inevitable. Populations impoverished by these conflicts, such as refugees and IDPs, are especially vulnerable to exploitation and human right violations, such as SGBV. Further deterioration of socio-economic wellbeing of the displaced and local populations increases social tensions, which may result in widespread social unrest and violence. In this context, the project works to enhance the protection of refugee women, girls and boys against SGBV through provision of legal support.

    To date, the number of registered Syrian refugees residing in Iraq has almost reached 250,000. The overwhelming majority of them (97%) are hosted in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), Northern Iraq, as they try to escape from the harsh living conditions resulting from the civil war in Syria. Despite the hospitability shown by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and local communities, most of these refugees remain vulnerable and face various difficulties.

    Sexual violence against refugees by armed opposition groups has been widely reported, Women, especially those of a young age, as well as boys are currently at high risk of rape, forced early marriages, sexual slavery and abuse. In addition, the religious minorities have been systematically subjected to immediate threat of serious human rights violations. The protection of all minorities is urgently required and immediate documentation of these atrocities is crucial for the national and international accountability.

    Due to on-going conflicts, public service provision has been disrupted in all affected areas. The restoration of basic public infrastructure is essential to alleviate vulnerability of the affected population. The influx of internally displaced persons into the Kurdistan region has adversely affected the capacity of the refugees to sustain themselves as both populations struggle for resources in an already cash-starved economy.

    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to increase the protection of refugee women, girls and boys against SGBV and is part of an interagency joint SGBV strategy with UNHCR and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). It will do this by expanding Vulnerability Monitoring and Legal Aid Centres in three refugee camps and creating a mobile legal aid centre to serve refugees in non-camp settings.

    Where possible, activities will be carried out in close collaboration with local counterparts in order to increase ownership and sustainability. The activities will have a strong gender focus and aim to address the specific needs and opportunities for affected women and children.

    Partnership Framework

    The project has, as a foundation, established relationships of trust between UNDP and local authorities, ministries and UNHCR. Local relationships have been built through UNDP's network of sub/field offices in Basra, Dohuk, Erbil and Sulimaniya. UNDP is co-leading, with UNHCR, the Intersectoral Working Group on coordination for refugee resilience support in Iraq. Additionally, UNDP and UNHCR's joint work on the 3RP requires a strong collaboration with national/regional government counterparts so that a longer-term approach is adopted from an early stage. And, UNDP is part of the Humanitarian Country Team, a network of UN organizations working on humanitarian projects and led by the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq. UNDP also manages the cluster for livelihoods and social cohesion for internally displaced persons (IDP).

    Activities

    Women and girls are among those most affected by the current crisis. They require gender-specific support and protection during displacement. Activities address immediate social protection needs while working through institutional structures established with UNDP support as part of its broader rule of law and access to justice programmatic support. Specifically, this entails the provision of emergency prevention and protection measures targeting women and girls who are vulnerable to abuse, violations and exploitation. The project also focuses on consolidating protection mechanisms for vulnerable communities, specifically women and youth with a resilience based approach, building on past and on-going efforts to strengthen the rule of law and improve protection and access to justice and through institutional support.

    The project expands VMLAC in refugee camps/non-camps in Erbil, Dohuk, and Sulaimania by:

    • Consolidating the work of the three existing Vulnerability Monitoring & Legal Aid Centres in the three governorates of the KRG
    • Establishing a mobile team for non-camp refugees in each governorate to monitor the off camp S/GBV and human rights situation
    • Training refugee women on the provision of basic legal assistance
    Impact

    The project is part of an interagency joint SGBV strategy with UNHCR and UNFPA, and aims to increase the protection of refugee women, girls and boys against SGBV.

    Key achievements to date include:

    • Three legal and vulnerability monitoring centers, established and fully operational: one in each of main refugee camp in Duhok, Erbil and Sulaimanya. Three mobile teams, established in each governorate to cover other refugee camps and refugee population outside the camp
    • The Directorate of Combating Violence Against Women (DCVAW) and Independent Board of the Human Rights (IBHR) are both being supported as a collaborative of governmental entities for the implementation of the project, to ensure their presence inside Refugee camps and provide emergency response, such as investigation follow up and monitoring the situation of SGBV and Trafficking incidents, through deploying professional staff working at the legal and vulnerability monitoring centers inside refugee camps
    • Three local NGOs are being supported, one in each governorate in the Kurdistan Region, to run legal and vulnerability monitoring centers, with special focus on women and girls survivors of SGBV and trafficking and in direct partnership and collaboration with above mentioned governmental entities, providing the following services:
      • Legal consultation, follow up and representation through specialized lawyers
      • Social services including social counseling, referral to various service providers and follow up
      • Legal and social awareness-raising to Refugee women and girls through regular awareness -raising sessions and disseminating awareness raising publication materials
      • Training and capacity development to DCVAW and IBHR staff, as well as selected women and girls among Syrian refugee on providing basic service and referral services to survivors of SGBV and trafficking
      • Investigation and follow up service from SGBV incidents through SGBV investigation officer deployed at DCVAW
      • Assessing the SGBV vulnerability risks by reporting on trends of incidents to government and UN agencies for early warning and mitigation of life threating SGBV consequences through specialized staff deployed by IBHR
      • A total of 1,910 Refugees (1,356 female and 554 male) have been provided with the legal services on matters such as SGBV and GBV, as well as legal documentation support
      • Approximately 1,879 Refugee (1,658 female and 221 male) provided with social services
      • About 10,000 Refugees have attended social awareness sessions and received publications on Sexual and Gender-based Violence

    IPr2
    Enhanced basic public services and economic opportunities for Syrian refugees & host communities

    The Project

    This project helps improve public services while providing economic opportunities for Syrian refugees in Iraq. The focus of the project is to:

    • Improve basic service delivery, institutional responsiveness and accountability at the district and sub-district levels in services such as water, electricity, schools and health centres
    • Provide of livelihoods and local economic recovery support to IDPs, refugees and their host communities
    • Strengthen social cohesion among the Syrian refugees, Iraqi IDPs and host communities through both helping them cope with basic needs and by addressing longer-term, systemic issues

    Ultimately the project will increase social cohesion by improving basic service infrastructure for refugees and host communities and by encouraging positive co-existence of local and refugees and internally displaced persons.

    Budget 14,158,000 USD
    The Issue

    As armed conflicts continue to escalate in Iraq, negative economic and security impacts are inevitable. This could significantly hinder early recovery efforts and further deteriorate socio-economic wellbeing of the displaced and local populations. This may eventually lead to social tensions and peoples' discontent, potentially resulting in widespread social unrest and violence. In response to the on-going crisis, the proposed project focuses on expanding basic public services and economic opportunities for refugee and local populations with social cohesion.

    To date, the number of registered Syrian refugees residing in the KRI has almost reached 250,000. The overwhelming majority (97%) are hosted in the Kurdistan Region (KR), Northern Iraq, as they try to escape from the harsh living conditions resulting from the civil war in Syria. Despite a relatively hospitable response from the KRG and local communities, most of these refugees remain vulnerable and face various difficulties.

    Due to on-going conflicts, public service provision has been disrupted in all affected areas. The restoration of basic public infrastructure is essential to alleviate vulnerability of the affected population. The influx of IDPs into the KRI has adversely affected the capacity of the refugees to be self-reliant perhaps as both populations struggle for resources in an already cash-starved economy.

    While Government policy allows refugees to register in Iraq, these individuals have difficulty finding employment outside of the informal sector and competition within and between the host communities and refugees is a reality faced by many. UNDP is therefore supporting livelihoods stabilization and local economic recovery efforts aimed to: i) alleviate immediate tensions over access to employment and other livelihoods assets between host community members and refugees; ii) increase the overall economic absorption capacities and resilience of host communities to support refugees; and iii) support more diversified livelihoods opportunities, enterprise recovery and skills development for the most vulnerable groups within communities, to strengthen their resilience beyond the crisis.

    Social tension between host communities and refugees is on the rise countrywide, and is likely to increase further as refugees continue to reside in Iraq. Maintaining peaceful relations, or at least tolerance, between host communities and the displaced is essential to build an environment conducive for humanitarian actors to identify and promote durable solutions. Mechanisms for inclusive dialogue and stronger community solidarity between local authorities, host communities and refugees will be fostered using existing structures in addition to media and other non-traditional channels of communications.

    Community consultations inform prioritization of cash for work programs, which not only result in emergency job creation, but also in increased access to essential public services, complementing the education, WASH and Health clusters' initiatives. Community consultations also have risk education and emergency safety information sessions with regards to land mines since Syrian refugees often lack familiarity of contaminated areas in KRG and are more vulnerable to unknowingly entering contaminated land.

    Socio-economic factors associated with refugees (e.g., ethnicity, sectarian/religious divide, violent conflicts, multiple displacements, and possible security risks) are extremely complex and have great impacts on the social fabric of the communities. This can increase tensions between the local communities and refugees. Support for social cohesion and resilience building is therefore critical to prevent further deterioration of social capital of the local communities and the potential escalation of violence.

    Strategy

    The objective of this project is to increase social cohesion by improving basic service infrastructure (such as water, electricity, schools and health centres) for refugees and host communities and by providing emergency employment and vocational training for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    The programme is fully rooted in the resilience approach, which ensures that the foundations are laid to meet medium and long-term needs, with a growing capacity of communities for self-reliance and an increased government service delivery to affected communities. UNDP strongly complements the primarily life-saving and shorter-term activities carried out by other partners including multisectoral and integrated strategies to enhance self-reliance of the affected populations.

    In order to make the affected population more self-reliant and less dependent on external aid, livelihood support is a corner stone of the UNDP crisis response. UNDP focuses on both emergency livelihoods stabilization as well as local economic recovery for longer-term employment and income generation. The Emergency Markets Mapping and Analysis (EMMA), supported by UNDP with other partners such as DRC and UNHCR, is a key tool to prepare the affected population more effectively for the growing labour opportunities.

    Partnership Framework

    Activities will be carried out in close collaboration with local counterparts where possible, as a critical basis for national and local ownership and to contribute to longer-term resilience of communities. This includes local authorities, central and regional Ministries, and local stakeholders working with UNDP's network of field offices in Basra, Dohuk, Erbil and Sulimaniya.

    Impact

    The project is helping refugees cope with loss of income by providing emergency employment in the short term and by revitalizing local economies in the medium term. To address social cohesion issues, the project is strengthening basic service infrastructure which benefit both host and refugee communities. Key activities are highlighted below.

    Greater economic opportunities generated:

    • Create short-term emergency employment/ livelihoods opportunities for refugees
    • Conduct vocational training, targeting the most vulnerable people, including female household heads, women and the youth
    • Support micro, small and medium businesses/enterprises for refugees
    • Revitalize local economies with start-up business grants.

    Socio-economic infrastructure restored or constructed:

    • Rehabilitate or construct priority basic service infrastructures (such as water, electricity, schools and health centres), in the selected refugee camps

    The project will build self-resilience of the vulnerable populations in Syrian refugees by enhancing their vocational skills, strengthening local economies, and facilitating small-business start-up. Pressures on social cohesion will be addressed by revitalizing basic service infrastructure in refugee camps and by promoting co-existence and co-prosperity of local and refugees and internally displaced persons.

    In 2014, UNDP supported job opportunities through training and small business creation for 14,000 people who directly benefitted. The support has been balanced as beneficiaries are from refugees/IDPs and host communities. Over 2,000 people in 11 communities participated in social cohesion platforms to reduce community tensions.

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