6 Improve Maternal Health
Sexual and reproductive rights fall within the basic human rights acknowledged by national and international documents on human rights. In addition to current legislation, the Ministry of Civil Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall develop a national sexual and reproductive health strategy.
The attainment of MDG 5 will require more support in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Some improvements are evident since 2000 in reducing the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births from 5.05 in 2000 to 1.0 in 2007, 2.9 in 2009 and 3.0 in 2010 but then the figure spiked up to 6.3 in 2011. Focus on these figures needs to be maintained for 2012 and 2013 in order to see whether a negative trend is forming in relation to an increase in maternal death in BiH and what the underlying causes might be. The percentage of assisted childbirths continued to be high at 99.9% in 2012.
While BiH has been very successful generally in keeping the maternal mortality rate low it still needs to invest more effort to ensure universal access to reproductive health and reproductive health commodities and it needs to improve maternal health through the establishment of strategic frameworks such as for the prevention of cervical cancer, which is the one of the highest causes of mortality amongst women in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A holistic approach and view is required that would include economic and societal factors that affect reproductive, maternal and child health. In order to ensure further improvement in reproductive and maternal health it is necessary to further educate the BiH population and improve existing healthcare and social protection services. BiH has faced a decreasing birth rate and fertility trend as well as an increasing population mortality rate over the past decade and this will have a significant impact on the country’s population and existing sector policy reforms. Demographic trends will have a considerable impact on the health and social protection sectors and therefore accurate and detailed analysis of demographic indicators is required in order to establish reliable baselines for the development of appropriate population policy.
The 8 Millennium Development Goals
- 1 Eradicate Extreme Hunger and poverty
- 2 Achieve Universal Primary Education
- 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
- 4 Reduce Child Mortality
- 5 Improve Maternal Health
- 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
- 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8 Develop a global partnership for development
Global Targets for MDG 5
- Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio
- Most maternal deaths could be avoided
- Giving birth is especially risky in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where most women deliver without skilled care
- The rural-urban gap in skilled care during childbirth has narrowed
- Achieve universal access to reproductive health & inadequate funding for family planning is a major failure in fulfilling commitments to improving women’s reproductive health
- More women are receiving antenatal care
- Inequalities in care during pregnancy are striking
- Only one in three rural women in developing regions receive the recommended care during pregnancy
- Progress has stalled in reducing the number of teenage pregnancies, putting more young mothers at risk
- Poverty and lack of education perpetuate high adolescent birth rates
- Progress in expanding the use of contraceptives by women has slowed & use of contraception is lowest among the poorest women and those with no education